Understanding Key Qualities in Micro 100’s Offering of Micro-Quik™ Quick Change Tool Holders

Did you know that, along with supplying the machining industry with premier turning tools, Micro 100 also fully stocks tool holders for its proprietary Micro-Quik™ Quick Change Tool Holder System? In fact, Micro 100’s Spring 2021 Product Catalog introduced new “headless” style tool holders, which are revolutionizing the machine setup process for turning operations.

This “In the Loupe” guide is designed to provide you with insight for navigating Micro 100’s offering, and to help you select the optimal holder style for your operation.

Understanding Micro 100’s Micro-Quik™

Micro 100’s Micro-Quik™ is unlike any other tool change system you may have seen from other tool manufacturers because of its incredible axial and radial repeatability and its ease of use. This foolproof system delivers impressive repeatability, tip-to-tip consistency, and part-to-part accuracy, all the while resulting in tool changes that are 90 % faster than conventional methods.

In all, a tool change that would regularly take more than 5 minutes is accomplished in fewer than 30 seconds.

Try Micro 100’s “Headless” Tool Holders for Incredible Flexibility

Micro 100 Quick Change Tool Holder Selection

Straight Style, Headless Tool Holders

When using a straight style tool holder, you will enjoy significantly enhanced versatility during the machine set up process. These holders are engineered specifically for use in any Swiss, standard lathe, or multi-function lathe, and allow for adjustable holder depth in a tooling block. Radial coolant access ports provide easier access to coolant and the ability to utilize coolant through functionality in tooling blocks that share a static and live tool function, and cannot be plumbed through the back of the holder. Further, their headless design allows for installation through the backside of the tooling block in machines where the work envelope is limited, allowing for a simplified installation process.

Created by Harvey Performance Company Application Engineers, the following videos outline the simple process for inserting each style of Micro 100 Straight Tool Holder into a tooling block.

Micro 100 Straight Holder, Plumbed Style (QTS / QTSL)

In the video, you’ll notice that the first step is to place your Micro-Quik™ tool in this quick change holder, and align it with the locating pin. Then, tighten the locating and locking screw into the whistle notch. This forces the tool against the locking pin, and allows for repeatable accuracy, every time. From there, the quick change tool holder can be installed as a unit into a tooling block. When desired tool position is achieved, set screws can be tightened to lock the holder in place.

Micro 100 Straight Holder, Plumbed & Ported Style (QTSP / QTSPL)

This unique Micro 100 quick change tool holder style is plumbed and ported, allowing for enhanced versatility and coolant delivery efficiency. The setup process using this style of holder is also simple. First, place your Micro 100 quick change tool into the holder, and align it with the locating pin. From there, tighten the locating and locking screw into the whistle notch, forcing the tool against the locating pin and allowing for repeatable accuracy, every time. When plumbed coolant is being used, remove the plumbed plug in the back of the holder, and connect the appropriate coolant adapter and line. Then, the holder can be installed as a unit into the tooling block and locked into place with set screws.

When using ported coolant, make sure that the coolant plug in the back of the holder is tightly installed. Then, be sure to only use one of the radial ports. Simply plug the two that aren’t in use. Install the provided porting adapter to allow for coolant access. Porting options allow for coolant capabilities in machine areas where coolant is not easily accessible.

Headed Tool Holders

headed quick change tool holder

Micro 100’s original quick change tool holder for its Micro-Quik™ system, this style of tool holder for lathe applications features a unique “3 point” locking and locating system to ensure repeatability. When conducting a tool change with this tool holder style, you must follow a simple, 3-step process:

  1. Loosen the tool holder’s set screw
  2. Remove the used tool from the holder
  3. Insert the new tool and retighten the set screw

These headed holders are plumbed through the back of the holder for NPT coolant connection and are available in standard length and long length styles.

Double-Ended Modular Tool Holder System

double ended quick change tool holder

For twin spindle and Y-axis tooling block locations, Micro 100 fully stocks a double-ended modular system. Similar to its single-ended counterparts, this modular is headless, meaning it enhances machine access during the tool block installation process, and the holder depth can be adjusted while in the block. Because this system is double-ended, however, there is obviously no plumbed coolant option through the end of the tool. Instead, coolant is delivered via an external coolant port, the adapter for which is included in the purchase of the modular system. Right hand and left hand tool holders are designed so the set screws are facing the operator for easy access. Both right and left hand styles are designed for right hand turning.

Enjoy Quick Change Tool Holding Confidence & Ease of Use

When opting for a quick change system, machinists long for simplicity, versatility, and consistency. Though many manufacturers have a system of their own, Micro 100’s Micro-Quik™ sets itself apart with axial and radial repeatability, and tip-to-tip consistency. Further, Micro 100 fully stocks several quick change tool holder options, allowing a machinist to select the style that best fits their application.

Micro100 also manufactures and stocks a wide variety of boring tools for the Micro-Quik™. Click here to learn more.

For more information on selecting the appropriate quick change tool holder for your job, view our selection chart or call an experienced Micro 100 technical engineer at 800-421-8065.

quick change tool holder selection chart for Micro100

The 3 Critical Factors of Turning Speeds and Feeds

Many factors come into play when determining a proper turning speeds and feeds and depth of cut strategy for turning operations. While three of these factors – the ones we deemed to be among the most critical – are listed below, please note that there are many other considerations that are not listed, but that are also important. For instance, safety should always be the main focus of any machining operation, as improper cutting tool parameters can test a machine’s limits, resulting in an accident that can potentially cause significant bodily harm.

Machine condition, type, capabilities, and set-up are all significantly important to an overall successful turning operation, as is turning tool and holder selection.

Turning Speeds and Feeds Factor 1: Machine Condition

The condition of your machine should always be considered prior to beginning a machining operation on a lathe. Older machines that have been used for production operations where hard or abrasive materials are machined tend to have a large amount of backlash, or wear, on the machine’s mechanical parts. This can cause it to produce less than optimal result and may require that a tooling manufacturer’s recommended speeds and feeds parameters need to be dialed back a bit, as to not run the machine more aggressively than it can handle.

turning speeds and feeds

Factor 2: Machine Type and Capabilities

Before dialing in turning speeds and feeds, one must understand their machine type and its capabilities. Machines are programmed differently, depending on the type of turning center being used: CNC Lathe or Manual Lathe.

CNC Lathe Turning Centers

With this type of machine, the part and tool have the ability to be set in motion.

CNC lathe turning centers can be programmed as a G96 (constant surface footage) or G97 (constant RPM). With this type of machine, the maximum allowable RPM can be programmed using a G50 with an S command. For example, inputting a G50 S3000 into your CNC program would limit the maximum RPM to 3,000. Further, with CNC Lathe Turning Centers, the feed rate is programmable and can be changed at different positions or locations within a part program.

Manual Lathe Turning Centers

With this type of machine, only the part is in motion, while the tool remains immobile.

For manual lathe turning centers, parameters are programmed a bit differently. Here, the spindle speed is set at a constant RPM, and normally remains unchanged throughout the machining operation. Obviously, this puts more onus on a machinist to get speed correct, as an operation can quickly be derailed if RPM parameters are not optimal for a job. Like with CNC lathe turning centers, though, understanding your machine’s horsepower and maximum feed rate is critical.

Factor 3: Machine Set-Up

turning speeds and feeds proper tool setup
Excessive Tool Stickout. Digital Image, Hass Automation. https://www.haascnc.com/service/troubleshooting-and-how-to/troubleshooting/lathe-chatter—troubleshooting.html

Machining Conditions

When factoring in your machine set-up, machining conditions must be considered. Below are some ideal conditions to strive for, as well as some suboptimal machining conditions to avoid for dialing in proper turning speeds and feeds.

Ideal Machining Conditions for Turning Applications

  • The workpiece clamping or fixture is in optimal condition, and the workpiece overhang is minimized to improve rigidity.
  • Coolant delivery systems are in place to aid in the evacuation of chips from a part and help control heat generation.

Suboptimal Machining Conditions for Turning Applications

  • Utilizing turning tools that are extended for reach purposes, when not necessary, causing an increased amount of tool deflection and sacrificing the rigidity of the machining operations.
  • The workpiece clamping or fixturing is aged, ineffective, and in poor condition.
  • Coolant delivery systems are missing, or are ineffective
  • Machine does not feature any guarding or enclosures, resulting in safety concerns.

Cutting Tool & Tool Holder Selection

As is always the case, cutting tool and tool holder selection are pivotal. Not all turning tool manufacturers are the same, either. The best machinists develop longstanding relationships with tooling manufacturers, and are able to depend on their input and recommendations. Micro 100, for example, has manufactured the industry’s highest quality turning tools for more than 50 years. Further, its tool holder offering includes multiple unique styles, allowing machinists to determine the product that’s best for them.

lathe tool holder
Pro Tip: Be sure to take into consideration the machine’s horsepower and maximum feed rate when determining running parameters.

Bonus: Common Turning Speeds and Feeds Application Terminology

Vc= Cutting Speed

n= Spindle Speed

Ap=Depth of Cut

Q= Metal Removal Rate

G94 Feedrate IPM (Inches Per Minute)

G95 Feedrate IPR (Inches Per Revolution)

G96 CSS (Constant Surface Speed)

G97 Constant RPM (Revolutions Per Minute)

How to Optimize Results While Machining With Miniature End Mills

 The machining industry generally considers micromachining and miniature end mills to be any end mill with a diameter under 1/8 of an inch. This is also often the point where tolerances must be held to a tighter window. Because the diameter of a tool is directly related to the strength of a tool, miniature end mills are considerably weaker than their larger counterparts, and therefore, lack of strength must be accounted for when micromachining. If you are using these tools in a repetitive application, then optimization of this process is key.

Key Cutting Differences Between Conventional and Miniature End Mills

Runout

Runout during an operation has a much greater effect on miniature tools, as even a very small amount can have a large impact on the tool engagement and cutting forces. Runout causes the cutting forces to increase due to the uneven engagement of the flutes, prompting some flutes to wear faster than others in conventional tools, and breakage in miniature tools. Tool vibration also impacts the tool life, as the intermittent impacts can cause the tool to chip or, in the case of miniature tools, break. It is extremely important to check the runout of a setup before starting an operation. The example below demonstrates how much of a difference .001” of runout is between a .500” diameter tool and a .031” diameter tool.

chart comparing tool diameter for runout in micromachining
The runout of an operation should not exceed 2% of the tool diameter. Excess runout will lead to a poor surface finish.

Chip Thickness

The ratio between the chip thickness and the edge radius (the edge prep) is much smaller for miniature tools. This phenomena is sometimes called “the size effect” and often leads to an error in the prediction of cutting forces. When the chip thickness-to-edge radius ratio is smaller, the cutter will be more or less ploughing the material rather than shearing it. This ploughing effect is essentially due to the negative rake angle created by the edge radius when cutting a chip with a small thickness.

If this thickness is less than a certain value (this value depends of the tool being used), the material will squeeze underneath the tool. Once the tool passes and there is no chip formation, part of the plowed material recovers elastically. This elastic recovery causes there to be higher cutting forces and friction due to the increased contact area between the tool and the workpiece. These two factors ultimately lead to a greater amount of tool wear and surface roughness.

chart of edge radius in relation to chip thickness for micromachining
Figure 1: (A) Miniature tool operation where the edge radius is greater than the chip thickness (B) Conventional operation where the edge radius is small than the chip thickness

Tool Deflection in Conventional vs. Micromachining Applications

Tool deflection has a much greater impact on the formation of chips and accuracy of the operation in micromachining operations, when compared to conventional operations. Cutting forces concentrated on the side of the tool cause it to bend in the direction opposite the feed. The magnitude of this deflection depends upon the rigidity of the tool and its distance extended from the spindle. Small diameter tools are inherently less stiff compared to larger diameter tools because they have much less material holding them in place during the operation. In theory, doubling the length sticking out of the holder will result in 8 times more deflection. Doubling the diameter of an end mill it will result in 16 times less deflection. If a miniature cutting tool breaks on the first pass, it is most likely due to the deflection force overcoming the strength of the carbide. Here are some ways you can minimize tool deflection.

Workpiece Homogeny

Workpiece homogeny becomes a questionable factor with decreasing tool diameter. This means that a material may not have uniform properties at an exceptionally small scale due to a number of factors, such as container surfaces, insoluble impurities, grain boundaries, and dislocations. This assumption is generally saved for tools that have a cutter diameter below .020”, as the cutting system needs to be extremely small in order for the homogeny of the microstructure of the material to be called into question.

Surface Finish

Micromachining may result in an increased amount of burrs and surface roughness when compared to conventional machining. In milling, burring increases as feed increases, and decreases as speed increases. During a machining operation, chips are created by the compression and shearing of the workpiece material along the primary shear zone. This shear zone can be seen in Figure 2 below. As stated before, the chip thickness-to-edge radius ratio is much higher in miniature applications. Therefore, plastic and elastic deformation zones are created during cutting and are located adjacent to the primary shear zone (Figure 2a). Consequently, when the cutting edge is close to the border of the workpiece, the elastic zone also reaches this border (Figure 2b). Plastic deformation spreads into this area as the cutting edge advances, and more plastic deformation forms at the border due to the connecting elastic deformation zones (Figure 2c). A permanent burr begins to form when the plastic deformation zones connect (Figure 2d) and are expanded once a chip cracks along the slip line (Figure 2e). When the chips finally break off from the edge of the workpiece, a burr is left behind (Figure 2f).

burr formation mechanism using a miniature end mill
Figure 2: Burr formation mechanism using a miniature end mill 

Tool Path Best Practices for Miniature End Mills

Because of the fragility of miniature tools, the tool path must be programmed in such a way as to avoid a sudden amount of cutting force, as well as permit the distribution of cutting forces along multiple axes. For these reasons, the following practices should be considered when writing a program for a miniature tool path:

Ramping Into a Part

Circular ramping is the best practice for moving down axially into a part, as it evenly distributes cutting forces along the x, y, and z planes. If you have to move into a part radially at a certain depth of cut, consider an arching tool path as this gradually loads cutting forces onto the tool instead of all at once.

Micromachining in Circular Paths

You should not use the same speeds and feed for a circular path as you would for a linear path. This is because of an effect called compounded angular velocity. Each tooth on a cutting tool has its own angular velocity when it is active in the spindle. When a circular tool path is used, another angular velocity component is added to the system and, therefore, the teeth on the outer portion of tool path are traveling at a substantially different speed than expected. The feed of the tool must be adjusted depending on whether it is an internal or external circular operation. To find out how to adjust your feed, check out this article on running in circles.

Slotting with a Miniature Tool

Do not approach a miniature slot the same way as you would a larger slot. With a miniature slot, you want as many flutes on the tool as possible, as this increases the rigidity of the tool through a larger core. This decreases the possibility of the tool breaking due to deflection. Because there is less room for chips to evacuate with a higher number of flutes, the axial engagement must be decreased. With larger diameter tools you may be stepping down 50% – 100% of the tool diameter. But when using miniature end mills with a higher flute count, only step down between 5% – 15%, depending on the size of the diameter and risk of deflection. The feed rate should be increased to compensate for the decreased axial engagement. The feed can be increased even high when using a ball nose end mill as chip thinning occurs at these light depths of cut and begins to act like a high feed mill.

Slowing Down Your Feed Around Corners

Corners of a part create an additional amount of cutting forces as more of the tool becomes engaged with the part. For this reason it is beneficial to slow down your feed when machining around corners to gradually introduce the tool to these forces.

Climb Milling vs. Conventional Milling in Micromachining Applications

This is somewhat of a tricky question to answer when it comes to micromachining. Climb milling should be utilized whenever a quality surface finish is called for on the part print. This type of tool path ultimately leads to more predictable/lower cutting forces and therefore higher quality surface finish. In climb milling, the cutter engages the maximum chip thickness at the beginning of the cut, giving it a tendency to push away from the workpiece. This can potentially cause chatter issues if the setup does not have enough rigidity.  In conventional milling, as the cutter rotates back into the cut it pulls itself into the material and increases cutting forces. Conventional milling should be utilized for parts with long thin walls as well as delicate operations.

Combined Roughing and Finishing Operations

These operations should be considered when micromachining tall thin walled parts as in some cases there is not sufficient support for the part for a finishing pass.

Helpful Tips for Achieving Successful Micromachining Operations

Try to minimize runout and deflection as much as possible when micromachining. This can be achieved by using a shrink-fit or press-fit tool holder. Maximize the amount of shank contact with the collet while minimizing the amount of stick-out during an operation. Double check your print and make sure that you have the largest possible end mill because bigger tools mean less deflection.

  • Choose an appropriate depth of cut so that the chip thickness to edge radius ratio is not too small as this will cause a ploughing effect.
  • If possible, test the hardness of the workpiece before machining to confirm the mechanical properties of the material advertised by the vender. This gives the operator an idea of the quality of the material.
  • Use a coated tool if possible when working in ferrous materials due to the excess amount of heat that is generated when machining these types of metals. Tool coatings can increase tool life between 30%-200% and allows for higher speeds, which is key in micro-machining.
  • Consider using a support material to control the advent of burrs during a micromachining application. The support material is deposited on the workpiece surface to provide auxiliary support force as well as increase the stiffness of the original edge of the workpiece. During the operation, the support material burrs and is plastically deformed rather than the workpiece.
  • Use flood coolant to lower cutting forces and a greater surface finish.
  • Scrutinize the tool path that is to be applied as a few adjustments can go a long way in extending the life of a miniature tool.
  • Double-check tool geometry to make sure it is appropriate for the material you are machining. When available, use variable pitch and variable helix tools as this will reduce harmonics at the exceptionally high RPMs that miniature tools are typically run at.
variable pitch versus non-variable pitch
Figure 3: Variable pitch tool (yellow) vs. a non-variable pitch tool (black)

Benefits & Drawbacks of High and Low Helix Angles

While many factors impact the outcome of a machining operation, one often overlooked factor is the cutting tool’s helix angle. The Helix angle of a tool is measured by the angle formed between the centerline of the tool and a straight line tangent along the cutting edge.

A higher helix angle, usually 40° or more, will wrap around the tool “faster,” while a “slower” helix angle is usually less than 40°.

When choosing a tool for a machining operation, machinists often consider the material, the tooling dimensions and the flute count. The helix angle must also be considered to contribute to efficient chip evacuation, better part finish, prolonged tool life, and reduced cycle times.

Helix Angles Rule of Thumb

One general rule of thumb is that as the helix angle increases, the length of engagement along the cutting edge will decrease. That said,
there are many benefits and drawbacks to slow and high helix angles that can impact any machining operation.

Slow Helix Tool <40°

Benefits

  • Enhanced Strength – A larger core creates a strong tool that can resist deflection, or the force that will bend a tool under pressure.
  • Reduced Lifting – A slow helix will decrease a part from lifting off of the worktable in settings that are less secure.
  • Larger Chip Evacuation – The slow helix allows the tool to create a large chip, great for hogging out material.

Drawbacks

  • Rough Finish – A slow helix end mill takes a large chip, but can sometimes struggle to evacuate the chip. This inefficiency can result in a sub-par part finish.
  • Slower Feed Rate – The increased radial force of a slow helix end mill requires running the end mill at a slower feed rate.

High Helix Tool >40°

Benefits

  • Lower Radial Force – The tool will run quieter and smoother due to better shearing action, and allow for less deflection and more stability in thin wall applications.
  • Efficient Chip Evacuation – As the helix angle increases, the length of cutting edge engagement will decrease, and the axial force will increase. This lifts chips out and away, resulting in efficient chip evacuation.
  • Improved Part Finish – With lower radial forces, high helix tools are able to cut through material much more easily with a better shearing action, leaving an improved surface finish.

Drawbacks

  • Weaker Cutting Teeth – With a higher helix, the teeth of a tool will be thinner, and therefore thinner.
  • Deflection Risk – The smaller teeth of the high helix tool will increase the risk of deflection, or the force that will bend a tool under pressure. This limits how fast you can push high helix tools.
  • Increased Risk of Tool Failure – If deflection isn’t properly managed, this can result in a poor finish quality and tool failure.

Helix Angle: An Important Decision

In summary, a machinist must consider many factors when choosing tools for each application. Among the material, the finish requirements, and acceptable run times, a machinist must also consider the helix angle of each tool being used. A slow helix end mill will allow for larger chip formation, increased tool strength and reduce lifting forces. However, it may not leave an excellent finish. A high helix end mill will allow for efficient chip evacuation and excellent part finish, but may be subject to increased deflection, which can lead to tool breakage if not properly managed.

High Efficiency Milling for Titanium Made Easy With Helical’s New HVTI Cutter

Titanium is a notoriously difficult material to machine, especially in aggressive toolpaths, such as those associated with High Efficiency Milling (HEM). Helical Solutions’ new line of tooling, the HVTI-6 series of end mills for titanium, is optimized specifically for this purpose, and proven to provide 20% more tool life than a competitor’s similar tool.

At face level, these new Helical end mills for titanium feature corner radius geometry, 6 flutes, and are Aplus coated for optimal tool life and increased cutting performance. But there is much more to these end mills than the typical geometry of standard 6 flute tools. The HVTI-6 was designed with a combination of a unique rake, core, and edge design that give it a leg up over standard 6 flute tools for milling titanium while cutting HEM toolpaths. Click here to watch the HVTI-6 in action!

End Mills for Titanium

The design of the HVTI-6 was the result of significant testing by the Harvey Performance Company Innovation and New Product Development teams. These teams spent many months testing tools, doing in-depth analysis on materials and tool geometry, and pushing these tools through dozens of hours in the cut at testing sites across the country.

The new HVTI-6 cutter experienced higher metal removal rates (MRR) and 20% longer tool life while performing HEM in Titanium when compared to a standard 6 flute tool offered by a Helical Solutions competitor. This type of tool life improvement will produce huge cost savings on tooling, as well as shortened cycle times and lower cost per part.

Helical HVTI Titanium

The Harvey Performance Innovation team targeted Titanium grade Ti6Al4V for their testing, which accounts for the vast majority of the Titanium being machined in North America. The test part was designed and programmed to allow for a more defined agility test of the tool, taking the tool into key geometry cutting exercises like tight corners, long straight line cuts, and rapid movement.

Many hours were spent with Lyndex-Nikken, manufacturers of high-quality rotary tables, tool holders, and machining accessories, at their Chicago headquarters. By working with the team at Lyndex-Nikken, the Harvey Performance Company team was able to test under optimal conditions with top-of-the-line tool holders, work holding, and machining centers. Lyndex was also available to provide their expert support on tool holding techniques and were an integral part of the testing process for these tools. Video of the impressive test cuts taken at the Lyndex facility can be seen below.

WATCH THE HVTI IN ACTION

In these tests, the HVTI was able to run HEM toolpaths at 400 SFM and 120 IPM in Ti6Al4V, which served as the baseline for most of the testing.

While the standard 6 flute tools offered by Helical will still perform to high standards in Titanium and other hard materials (steels, exotic metals, cast iron), the HVTI-6 is a specialized, material-specific tool designed specifically for HEM toolpaths in Titanium. Advanced speeds and feeds for these new tools are already available in Machining Advisor Pro, and the complete offering is now available in the Helical CAM tool libraries for easy programming.

To learn more about the HVTI 6 Flute End Mills for Titanium, please visit the Helical Solutions website. To learn more about HEM techniques, download the HEM Guidebook for a complete guide on this advanced toolpath.

Selecting the Right Chamfer Cutter Tip Geometry

A chamfer cutter, or a chamfer mill, can be found at any machine shop, assembly floor, or hobbyist’s garage. These cutters are simple tools that are used for chamfering or beveling any part in a wide variety of materials. There are many reasons to chamfer a part, ranging from fluid flow and safety, to part aesthetics.

Due to the diversity of needs, tooling manufacturers offer many different angles and sizes of chamfer cutters, and as well as different types of chamfer cutter tip geometries. Harvey Tool, for instance, offers 21 different angles per side, ranging from 15° to 80°, flute counts of 2 to 6, and shank diameters starting at 1/8” up to 1 inch.

After finding a tool with the exact angle they’re looking for, a customer may have to choose a certain chamfer cutter tip that would best suit their operation. Common types of chamfer cutter tips include pointed, flat end, and end cutting. The following three types of chamfer cutter tip styles, offered by Harvey Tool, each serve a unique purpose.

Three Types of Harvey Tool Chamfer Cutters

Type I: Pointed

This style of chamfer cutter is the only Harvey Tool option that comes to a sharp point. The pointed tip allows the cutter to perform in smaller grooves, slots, and holes, relative to the other two types. This style also allows for easier programming and touch-offs, since the point can be easily located. It’s due to its tip that this version of the cutter has the longest length of cut (with the tool coming to a finished point), compared to the flat end of the other types of chamfer cutters. With only a 2 flute option, this is the most straightforward version of a chamfer cutter offered by Harvey Tool.

Type I Chamfer Cutter overview

Type II: Flat End, Non-End Cutting

Type II chamfer cutters are very similar to the type I style, but feature an end that’s ground down to a flat, non-cutting tip. This flat “tip” removes the pointed part of the chamfer, which is the weakest part of the tool. Due to this change in tool geometry, this tool is given an additional measurement for how much longer the tool would be if it came to a point. This measurement is known as “distance to theoretical sharp corner,” which helps with the programming of the tool. The advantage of the flat end of the cutter now allows for multiple flutes to exist on the tapered profile of the chamfer cutter. With more flutes, this chamfer has improved tool life and finish. The flat, non-end cutting tip flat does limit its use in narrow slots, but another advantage is a lower profile angle with better angular velocity at the tip.

Type II Chamfer Cutter overview

Type III: Flat End, End Cutting

Type III chamfer cutters are an improved and more advanced version of the type II style. The type III boasts a flat end tip with 2 flutes meeting at the center, creating a center cutting-capable version of the type II cutter. The center cutting geometry of this cutter makes it possible to cut with its flat tip. This cutting allows the chamfer cutter to lightly cut into the top of a part to the bottom of it, rather than leave material behind when cutting a chamfer. There are many situations where blending of a tapered wall and floor is needed, and this is where these chamfer cutters shine. The tip diameter is also held to a tight tolerance, which significantly helps with programing it.

Type III Chamfer Cutter overview

In conclusion, there could be many suitable cutters for a single job, and there are many questions you must ask prior to picking your ideal tool. Choosing the right angle comes down to making sure that the angle on the chamfer cutter matches the angle on the part. One needs to be cautious of how the angles are called out, as well. Is the angle an “included angle” or “angle per side?” Is the angle called off of the vertical or horizontal? Next, the larger the shank diameter, the stronger the chamfer and the longer the length of cut, but now, interference with walls or fixtures need to be considered. Flute count comes down to material and finish. Softer materials tend to want less flutes for better chip evacuation, while more flutes will help with finish. After addressing each of these considerations, the correct style of chamfer for your job should be abundantly clear.

How to Select a Spindle

When trying to develop efficient processes, many machinists and programmers turn to tool selection first. It is true that tooling can often make a big difference in machining time, and speeds and feeds, but did you know that your machine’s spindle can have an equally impactful effect? The legs of any CNC machine, spindles are comprised of a motor, a taper for holding tools, and a shaft that will hold all of the components together. Often powered by electricity, spindles rotate on an axis which receives its input from the machine’s CNC controller.

Why is Choosing the Right Spindle Important?

Choosing the right spindle to machine your workpiece with is of very high importance to a successful production run. As tooling options continue to grow, it is important to know what tooling your spindle can utilize. Large diameter tools such as large end mills or face mills typically require slower spindle speeds and take deeper cuts to remove vast amounts of material. These applications require supreme machine rigidity and require a spindle with high torque.

Contrastingly, smaller diameter tools will need a higher-speed spindle. Faster speeds and feeds deliver better surface finishes and are used in a variety of applications. A good rule of thumb is that an end mill that is a half inch or smaller will run well with lower torque.

Types of CNC Spindles

After finding out what you should look for in a spindle, it is time to learn about your different options. Spindles typically vary by the type, style of the taper, or its size. The taper is the conical portion of the tool holder that fits inside of the opening of the spindle. Every spindle is designed to mate with a certain taper style and size.

properly selecting a spindle

CAT and BT Holders

This is the most widely utilized holder for milling in the United States. Referred to as “V-flange holders,” both of these styles need a retention knob or pull stud to be secured within the machine spindle. The BT (metric style) is popular overseas.

HSK Holders

This type of holder is a German standard known as “hollow shank taper.” The tapered portion of the holder is much shorter than its counterparts. It also engages the spindle in a different way and does not require a pull stud or retention knob. The HSK holder is utilized to create repeatability and longer tool life – particularly in High Efficiency Milling (HEM) applications.

All of these holders have benefits and limitations including price, accuracy, and availability. The proper selection will depend largely on your application requirements.

Torque vs. Horsepower

Torque is defined as force perpendicular to the axis of rotation across a distance. It is important to have high torque capabilities when using an end mill larger than ½ inch, or when machining a difficult material such as Inconel. Torque will help put power behind the cutting action of the tool.

Horsepower refers to the amount of work being done. Horsepower is important for smaller diameter end mills and easy-to-machine materials like aluminum.

You can think of torque as a tractor: It can’t go very fast, but there is a lot of power behind it. Think of horsepower as a racecar: It can go very fast but cannot pull or push.

Torque-Horsepower Chart

Every machine and spindle should come with a torque horsepower chart. These charts will help you understand how to maximize your spindle for torque or horsepower, depending on what you need:

Haas spindle horsepower and torque chart
Image Source: HAAS Machine Manual

Proper Spindle Size

The size of the spindle and shank taper corresponds to the weight and length of the tools being used, as well as the material you are planning to machine. CAT40 is the most commonly used spindle in the United States. These spindles are great for utilizing tools that have a ½ inch diameter end mill or smaller in any material. If you are considering using a 1 inch end mill in a material like Inconel or Titanium, a CAT50 would be a more appropriate choice. The higher the taper angle is, the more torque the spindle is capable of.

While choosing the correct tool for your application is important, choosing a tool your spindle can utilize is paramount to machining success. Knowing the amount of torque required will help machinists save a lot of headaches.

How Boring Bar Geometries Impact Cutting Operations

Boring is a turning operation that allows a machinist to make a pre-existing hole bigger through multiple iterations of internal boring. It has a number of advantages over traditional hole finishing methods:

  • The ability to cost-effectively produce a hole outside standard drill sizes
  • The creation of more precise holes, and therefore tighter tolerances
  • A greater finish quality
  • The opportunity to create multiple dimensions within the bore itself

boring bar dimension explanation

Solid carbide boring bars, such as those offered by Micro 100,  have a few standard dimensions that give the tool basic functionality in removing material from an internal bore. These include:

Minimum Bore Diameter (D1): The minimum diameter of a hole for the cutting end of the tool to completely fit inside without making contact at opposing sides

Maximum Bore Depth (L2): Maximum depth that the tool can reach inside a hole without contact from the shank portion

Shank Diameter (D2): Diameter of the portion of the tool in contact with the tool holder

Overall Length (L1): Total length of the tool

Centerline Offset (F): The distance between a tool’s tip and the shank’s centerline axis

Tool Selection

In order to minimize tool deflection and therefore risk of tool failure, it is important to choose a tool with a max bore depth that is only slightly larger than the length it is intended to cut. It is also beneficial to maximize the boring bar and shank diameter as this will increase the rigidity of the tool. This must be balanced with leaving enough room for chips to evacuate. This balance ultimately comes down to the material being bored. A harder material with a lower feed rate and depths of cut may not need as much space for chips to evacuate, but may require a larger and more rigid tool. Conversely, a softer material with more aggressive running parameters will need more room for chip evacuation, but may not require as rigid of a tool.

Geometries

In addition, they have a number of different geometric features in order to adequately handle the three types of forces acting upon the tool during this machining process. During a standard boring operation, the greatest of these forces is tangential, followed by feed (sometimes called axial), and finally radial. Tangential force acts perpendicular to the rake surface and pushes the tool away from the centerline. Feed force does not cause deflection, but pushes back on the tool and acts parallel to the centerline. Radial force pushes the tool towards the center of the bore.

Defining the Geometric Features of a Boring Bar:

Nose Radius: the roundness of a tool’s cutting point

Side Clearance (Radial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the nose relative to the axis parallel to the centerline of the tool

End Clearance (Axial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the axis running perpendicular to the centerline of the tool

Side Rake Angle: The angle measuring the sideways tilt of the side face of the tool

Back Rake Angle: The angle measuring the degree to which the back face is tilted in relation to the centerline of the workpiece

Side Relief Angle: The angle measuring how far the bottom face is tilted away from the workpiece

End Relief Angle: The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the line running perpendicular to the center axis of the tool

boring bar geometric features

Effects of Geometric Features on Cutting Operations:

Nose Radius: A large nose radius makes more contact with the workpiece, extending the life of the tool and the cutting edge as well as leaving a better finish. However, too large of a radius will lead to chatter as the tool is more exposed to tangential and radial cutting forces.

Another way this feature affects the cutting action is in determining how much of the cutting edge is struck by tangential force. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent on the feed and depth of cut. Different combinations of depth of cuts and nose angles will result in either shorter or longer lengths of the cutting edge being exposed to the tangential force. The overall effect being the degree of edge wear. If only a small portion of the cutting edge is exposed to a large force it would be worn down faster than if a longer portion of the edge is succumb to the same force. This phenomenon also occurs with the increase and decrease of the end cutting edge angle.

End Cutting Edge Angle: The main purpose of the end cutting angle is for clearance when cutting in the positive Z direction (moving into the hole). This clearance allows the nose radius to be the main point of contact between the tool and the workpiece. Increasing the end cutting edge angle in the positive direction decreases the strength of the tip, but also decreases feed force. This is another situation where balance of tip strength and cutting force reduction must be found. It is also important to note that the angle may need to be changed depending on the type of boring one is performing.

Side Rake Angle: The nose angle is one geometric dimension that determines how much of the cutting edge is hit by tangential force but the side rake angle determines how much that force is redistributed into radial force. A positive rake angle means a lower tangential cutting force as allows for a greater amount of shearing action. However, this angle cannot be too great as it compromises cutting edge integrity by leaving less material for the nose angle and side relief angle.

Back Rake Angle: Sometimes called the top rake angle, the back rake angle for solid carbide boring bars is ground to help control the flow of chips cut on the end portion of the tool. This feature cannot have too sharp of a positive angle as it decreases the tools strength.

Side and End Relief Angles: Like the end cutting edge angle, the main purpose of the side and end relief angles are to provide clearance so that the tools non-cutting portion doesn’t rub against the workpiece. If the angles are too small then there is a risk of abrasion between the tool and the workpiece. This friction leads to increased tool wear, vibration and poor surface finish. The angle measurements will generally be between 0° and 20°.

Boring Bar Geometries Summarized

Boring bars have a few overall dimensions that allow for the boring of a hole without running the tool holder into the workpiece, or breaking the tool instantly upon contact. Solid carbide boring bars have a variety of angles that are combined differently to distribute the 3 types of cutting forces in order to take full advantage of the tool. Maximizing tool performance requires the combination of choosing the right tool along with the appropriate feed rate, depth of cut and RPM. These factors are dependent on the size of the hole, amount of material that needs to be removed, and mechanical properties of the workpiece.

Green Manufacturing: Lasting Environment & Shop Benefits

“Green Manufacturing” has become a common phrase used by many in America’s largest industry. It is defined by Goodwin College as “the renewal of production processes and the establishment of environmentally friendly operations within the manufacturing field.” Taking the time to rethink dated processes can save you time, money, and help build your reputation as a state-of-the-art business. The establishment of environmentally friendly machining processes is a huge leap in the right direction of creating an eco-friendly business.

green field with shrubs

Green Manufacturing is the next logical step forward for the industry.

How to Get Started With Green Manufacturing

The first step you should take on your march toward a more sustainable machine shop, and green manufacturing, is an evaluation of your facilities environmental impact. The most common method for environmental impact assessment of the manufacturing process is Life Cycle Assessment or LCA. ISO 14040 defines LCA as the compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs, and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle.

4 Questions to Ask Yourself:

  1. Goal Definition and Scoping – What am I trying to achieve in this investigation?
  2. Inventory Analysis – What are the quantified inputs (energy, water, materials, etc.) and outputs (air emission, wastewater)?
  3. Impact Assessment – How do these things affect the environment?
  4. Interpretation – What can I change to make my processes more efficient and eco-friendly?

There are databases available to help with the inventory analysis. These databases collect information such as feed rate, cutting speed, tool diameter, cutting time, coolant properties, and then calculate all the material, and energy inputs and outputs.

Understanding the Impact of Cutting Fluids

Cutting fluids are most likely the number one pollutant in your machine shop, and are getting in your way of achieving green manufacturing. According to Modern Manufacturing Processes, North American manufacturers consumed more than 2 billion gallons in 2002, and the metal working fluid market has only grown since then. Cutting fluids have a number of benefits to the machining process, mostly involving cooling of the cutting region, lubrication, and chip evacuation.

Contaminants

Getting the most out of your coolant is a key factor of cost efficiency in any machine shop. Therefore, one of the largest problems you are likely to face, or are currently facing, is the deterioration of cutting fluid performance due to contaminants. The most common types of contaminants include:

  1. Free oils (tramp or sump oil) – Liquid that lubricates the gears and equipment of CNC machine seeping into the cutting fluid
  2. Coarse Particulates – Relatively larger solid waste, chips, and swarf
  3. Fine Particulates – Extremely small pieces of the workpiece or cutting tool that usually consist of heavy metals such as cobalt, cadmium, chromium, aluminum, and lead
  4. Microorganisms – Bacteria and fungi that grow inside the walls and pipes of the CNC machine

Coarse particulates such as chips and swarf are generally easily extracted using an H-Chain, chain and flight, push bar, or a flume system. Fine particulates are more difficult as they require either separation or filtration in the form of setting tanks, foam separators, centrifugal separation, or magnetic separators. Free oil can also be removed through filtration but can also be taken care of quickly and easily with a skimmer.

green manufacturing contaminants

The right filtration system can both save machine shops money and help the environment.

Microorganisms are the most difficult to remove as they can be a tenth of the size of fine particulates. “Monday morning stink” is a common side effect of anaerobic bacteria excreting hydrogen sulfide during their metabolic processes. These organisms are one of the main reasons coolant has to be drained and changed from a machine every few months. Advancements in technology over the past few decades have made it possible for membrane microfiltration systems to separate biomass, as well as oil from coolant fluids. With these types of systems, operators will no longer have to use problematic biocides as these have troublesome health effects for both the environment and employees. However, it is important to note that most of the microorganisms aren’t growing in the cutting fluid but on the walls/pipes of the machine or buried in the residue of chips at the bottom of the tank.

Some ways of reducing microorganism build-up in your shop include:

  • Keeping machines clean – sludge, swarf, and chips can be a breeding ground for bacteria
  • Reduce organic contamination – spit, sweat, tobacco juice, and organic matter are all a food source for microorganisms
  • Reduce the amount of tramp oil – This can also be a food source

green manufacturing

A dirty pile of chips where bacteria will grow and stink up your machine.

Types of Cutting Fluids

A good cutting fluid should have a high flash point, good adhesiveness, high thermal stability, and high oxidative stability. A high flash point is necessary as the fluid should not catch fire at high temperatures (gasoline has a low flash point). Good adhesiveness allows fluid to stick to the surface of the workpiece. This creates a layer between the cutting tool and the workpiece, helping to separate them and thus, reducing friction. Greater amounts of friction leads to higher cutting force, which leads to higher cutting temperatures.

High cutting temperatures are problematic, as this causes the cutting tool to wear faster and can also cause your workpiece to workharden. High thermal stability means that at high temperatures, the fluid should have a low viscosity (an example of a fluid with high viscosity would be honey at room temperature). A lower viscosity in the cutting region allows for a lower amount of friction, and therefore lower amounts of heat and cutting force. A cutting fluids oxidative stability ultimately decides how long that cutting fluid can be used. After a while, oil begin to oxidize, which then causes its viscosity and amount of deposits of sludge to rise.

green manufacturing

Excessive amounts of coolants can mean an excessive amount of waste.

For the purpose of this article, cutting fluids will be placed into two broad categories: biodegradable and non-biodegradable.

Non-Biodegradable Coolants

Non-biodegradable coolants are petroleum-based. They have high human and ecological toxicity, which results in occupational health risks. They also have a complicated disposal processes.

Biodegradable Coolants

Biodegradable coolants are plant-based. These are usually manufactured from vegetables such as soy, coconut and canola, or non-edible plants such as neem, karanja, and jatropha. This factor makes them a renewable resource and less toxic to humans, as well as the environment.

In recent years, some modified vegetable-based oils have surpassed petroleum based oils in performance in regards to surface finish, heat suppression and lubrication. One study, published in Science Direct, centered on turning in 304 stainless steel revealed that coconut oil with a boric acid additive was significantly better at combating tool flank wear and surface roughness when compared to two other cutting fluids. This was due to the vegetable-based solutions high thermal stability.

Another study, published in IOP Science, found that a combination of neem and karanja oil was superior to SAE 20W40 (petroleum based oil) in regards to lubrication when drilling mild steel. The results showed that the vegetable-based oil solution reduced the cutting force of the operation due to its higher viscosity and adhesiveness. This ultimately led to a better surface finish on the part.

Summary of Cost Efficient Coolant Changes You Can Make

  • Reduce microorganism build up in your machines by keeping the machines clean and reducing amount of outside contamination
  • Install a membrane microfiltration system
  • Switch to a more efficient and biodegradable cutting fluid

The Positive Green Machining Impact of Dry Machining

Dry machining should be utilized whenever the opportunity presents itself, as the costs and environmental issues associated with cutting fluid obtainment, management, and disposal are eliminated. Another benefit to dry machining is the absence of thermal shock. When the cutter exits the cut but coolant is still blasting, the large temperature fluctuation (thermal shock) will cause the cutting edge to break down quicker than if it were to run hot full time. Dry machining is most prevalent in machining operations with interrupted cuts or when cutting hardened steels. It is especially popular in milling operations with high speeds and feeds. Cutting with high running parameters allows for most of the heat to be dispersed into the chips rather than into the workpiece. This is also the case when machining hardened steels.

Ideal Tooling for Dry Machining

The ideal cutting tool should be more heat resistant, and less heat generative. Carbide is a good substrate as it is extremely hard and strong. Coated tools are the best option for dry machining as they have improved thermal insulation as well as improved self-lubrication.

The Positive Affect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)

  • Significantly reduced fluid consumption
  • Safer cutting fluids and lubricants
  • Reduced health hazards for employees
  • Cleaner shop environment
  • Reduced maintenance

Because such a small quantity of fluid is used in MQL, this make it a perfect application to use slightly pricier vegetable-based oils. MQL has been found to be most effective in sawing and drilling operations.

The Benefits of Green Manufacturing

Taking a second look at your current machining operations through and environmentalist lens can save you time, money, and create a less hazardous work place for your employees. Using the techniques above, one can approximate shop efficiency and make appropriate changes for the benefit of current and future generations.

The Geometries and Purposes of a Slitting Saw

When a machinist needs to cut material significantly deeper than wide, a Slitting Saw is an ideal choice to get the job done. These are unique due to their composition and rigidity, which allows it to hold up in a variety of both straightforward and tricky to machine materials.

What is a Slitting Saw?

A Slitting Saw is a flat (with or without a dish), circular-shaped tool that has a hole in the middle and teeth on the outer diameter. Used in conjunction with an arbor, this tool is intended for machining purposes that require a large amount of material to be removed within a small diameter, such as slotting or cutoff applications.

Other names include (but are not limited to) Slitting Cutters, Slotting Cutters, Jewelers Saws, and Slitting Knives. Both Jewelers Saws and Slitting Knives are particular types of saws. Jewelers Saws have a high tooth count enabling them to cut tiny, precise features, and Slitting Knives have no teeth at all. On Jewelers Saws, the tooth counts are generally much higher than other types of saws in order to make the cuts as accurate as possible.

Key Terminology

slitting saw terminology chart

Why Use a Slitting Saw?

These saws are designed for cutting into both ferrous and non-ferrous materials, and by utilizing their unique shape and geometries, they can cut thin slot type features on parts more efficiently than any other machining tool.

harvey tool slitting saw

Common Applications:

  1. Separating Two Pieces of Material
    1. If an application calls for cutting a piece of material, such as a rod, in half, then a slitting saw will work well to cut the pieces apart while increasing efficiency.
  2. Undercutting Applications
    1. Saws can perform undercutting applications if mounted correctly, which can eliminate the need to remount the workpiece completely.
  3. Slotting into Material
    1. Capable of creating thin slots with a significant depth of cut, Slitting Saws can be just the right tool for the job!

When Not to Use a Slitting Saw

While it may look similar to a stainless steel circular saw blade from a hardware store, this tool should never be used with construction tools such as a table or circular saw.  Brittle saw blades will shatter when used on manual machines, and can cause injury when not used on the proper set up.

In Conclusion

Slitting Saws can be beneficial to a wide variety of machining processes, and it is vital to understand their geometries and purpose before attempting to utilize them in the shop. They are a great tool to have in the shop and can assist with getting jobs done as quickly and efficiently as possible.