Machining Precious Metals
Precious metals can be particularly difficult to machine due to their wide range of material properties and high cost if a part has to be scrapped. The following article will introduce these elements and their alloys as well as provide a guide on how to machine them effectively and efficiently.
About the Elements
Sometimes called “noble” metals, precious metals consist of eight elements that lie in the middle of the periodic table (seen below in Figure 1). The eight metals are:
- Ruthenium (Ru)
- Rhodium (Rh)
- Palladium (Pd)
- Silver (Ag)
- Osmium (Os)
- Iridium (Ir)
- Platinum (Pt)
- Gold (Au)
These elements are some of the rarest materials on earth, and can therefore be enormously expensive. Gold and silver can be found in pure nugget form, making them more easily available. However, the other six elements are typically found mixed in the raw ore of the four metals they sit below on the periodic table: Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), and Copper (Cu). These elements are a subset of precious metals and are generally called Platinum Group Metals (PGM). Because they are found together in raw ore, this makes mining and extraction difficult, dramatically increasing their cost. Because of their high price tag, machining these materials right the first time is incredibly important to a shop’s efficiency.
Basic Properties and Compositions of Precious Metals
Precious metals have notable material properties as they are characteristically soft, ductile, and oxidation resistant. They are called “noble” metals because of their resistance to most types of chemical and environmental attack. Table 1 lists a few telling material properties of precious metals in their elemental form. For comparison purposes, they are side-by-side with 6061 Al and 4140 Steel. Generally, only gold and silver are used in their purest form as the platinum group metals are alloys that consist mainly of platinum (with a smaller composition of Ru, Rh, Pa, Os, Ir). Precious metals are notable for being extremely dense and having a high melting point, which make them suitable for a variety of applications.
Table 1: Cold-worked Material Properties of Precious Metals, 4140 Steel and 6061 Aluminum
Common Machining Applications of Precious Metals
Silver and gold have particularly favorable thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. These values are listed in Table 2, along with CC1000 (annealed copper) and annealed 6061 aluminum, for comparison purposes. Copper is generally used in electrical wiring because of its relatively low electrical resistivity, even though silver would make a better substitute. The obvious reason this isn’t the general convention is the cost of silver vs. copper. That being said, copper is generally plated with gold at electrical contact areas because it tends to oxide after extended use, which lowers its resistivity. As stated before, gold and the other precious metals are known to be resistant to oxidation. This corrosion resistance is the main reason that they are used in cathodic protection systems of the electronics industry.
Table 2: Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity of Ag, Au, Cu, and Al
Platinum and its respective alloys offer the most amount of applications as it can achieve a number of different mechanical properties while still maintaining the benefits of a precious metal (high melting point, ductility, and oxidation resistance). Table 3 lists platinum and a number of other PGMs each with their own mechanical properties. The variance of these properties depends on the alloying element(s) being added to the platinum, the percentage of alloying metal, and whether or not the material has been cold-worked or annealed. Alloying can significantly increase the tensile strength and hardness of a material while decreasing its ductility at the same time. The ratio of this tensile strength/hardness increase to ductility decrease depends on the metal added as well as how much is added, as seen in Table 3. Generally this depends on the particle size of the element added as well as its natural crystalline structure. Ruthenium and Osmium have a specific crystal structure that has a significant hardening effect when added to platinum. Pt-Os alloys in particular are extremely hard and practically unworkable, which doesn’t yield many real-world applications. However, the addition of the other 4 PGMs to platinum allow for a range of mechanical properties with various usages.
Table 3: PGM material properties (Note: the hardness and tensile strength are cold worked values)
Platinum and its alloys are biocompatible, giving them the ability to be placed in the human body for long periods of time without causing adverse reactions or poisoning. Therefore, medical devices including heart muscle screw fixations, stents, and marker bands for angioplasty devices are made from platinum and its alloys. Gold and palladium are also commonly used in dental applications.
Pt-Ir alloys are noticeably harder and stronger than any of the other alloys and make excellent heads for spark plugs in the automobile industry. Rhodium is sometimes added to Pt-Ir alloys to make the material less springy (as they are used as medical spring wire) while also increasing its workability. Pt and Pt-Rh wire pairs are extremely effective at measuring temperatures and are therefore used in thermocouples.
Machining Precious Metals
The two parameters that have the most effect when machining are hardness and percent elongation. Hardness is well-known by machinists and engineers across the manufacturing industry as it indicates a material’s resistance to deformation or cutting. Percent elongation is a measurement used to quantify material ductility. It indicates to a designer the degree to which a structure will deform plastically (permanently) before fracture. For example, a ductile plastic such as ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has a percent elongation of 350-525%, while a more brittle material such as oil-quenched and tempered cast iron (grade 120-90-02) has a percent elongation of about 2%. Therefore, the greater the percent elongation, the greater the material’s “gumminess.” Gummy materials are prone to built-up edge and have a tendency to produce long stringy chips.
Tools for Precious Metals
Material ductility makes a sharp cutting tool essential for cutting precious metals. Variable Helix for Aluminum Alloy tools can be used for the softer materials such as pure gold, silver, and platinum.
Higher hardness materials still require a sharp cutting edge. Therefore, one’s best option is to invest in a PCD Diamond tool. The PCD wafer has the ability to cut extremely hard materials while maintaining a sharp cutting edge for a relatively long period of time, compared to standard HSS and carbide cutting edges.
This article had some good info but it lacked any data relative to Sterling Silver and 10k-14k gold. I would find it really helpful if you were able to identify cutters withan 1/8″ shank that would do really well with Sterling silver and 14l gold.
Would those PCB diamond tools be best or is there something better for longer life?
Hi Richard- Sterling Silver is a Silver alloy with around 92% silver and 8% copper therefore a non-ferrous alloy cutter can be used at the recommended speeds and feeds under “Silver Alloys”. For machining 10K-14K gold it really depends on the nickel content as this is a hardening alloy and may be more difficult to machine. If you would like to play it safe a PCD cutter would have no trouble cutting through 10K-14K gold as these types of cutters can be used to cut pretty much anything that is non-ferrous. A PCD cutter will also give you the longest tool life.
The science behind creating these precious metals just blows my mind. It is so amazing that we are able to figure out what elements make up the metal and re-create it. I find it interesting that platinum has a high melting point, would that allow it to be used for higher temperature situations then other metals?
Hello! I have a few drawings I would like to see if you would be able to quote for me ? Are you able to provide me an email I can send these for your review?
Thank you so much!
Yes! Depending on the size and profile you can email [email protected] or [email protected].
thank you for the information.
do you have any idea of pure silver circular saw cutting parameters?
Please send an email to [email protected] with all your information and application information and they will be able to help you.
I didn’t know that different metals have different material properties. I need someone who can machine some steel pipes for me. I’ll have to consider getting a contractor who can weld everything for me.
I have a tool with a diameter of 0.5mm (0.020in): 0.020×1/8×0.100×2-1/2 from Accupro. My CNC machine is a Haas OM-2. I have problems with processing platinum because the cutter breaks after an hour of work. The cutter performs work in an arc with an angle of 7.4 degrees to a depth of 1.6mm. The primary arc window is 0.4mm wide. the cutter is supposed to widen it to 0.5 so it collects only 0.05mm on the side. what feed rate and spindle speed to choose? I used spindle speed S2500 and feed rate F10. But the tool broke after making 8 windows (about 60 minutes of work).
What can I improve in my work so that the cutter can withstand, for example, 20 windows.
Great question, I suggest reaching out to [email protected] with all the information about the application. One of our technical associates will be able to dive deeper into your application and find the best possible solution for you.