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New Dublin Ship Fittings – Featured Customer

New Dublin Ship Fittings was established in 2017 by Lucas Gilbert, and is located on the scenic south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada.  Lucas began his career with a formal education in machining and mechanical engineering. In the early 2000’s, Lucas got into the traditional shipbuilding industry made famous in the region he grew up in, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. It is then when Lucas identified the need for quality marine hardware and began making fittings in his free time. After some time, Lucas was able to start New Dublin Ship Fittings and pursue his lifelong dream of opening a machine shop and producing custom yacht hardware.

Lucas was our grand prize winner in the #MadeWithMicro100 Video Contest! He received the $1,000 Amazon gift card, a Micro-Quik™ Quick Change System with some tooling, and a chance to be In the Loupe’s Featured Customer for February. Lucas was able to take some time out of his busy schedule to discuss his shop, how he got started in machining, and the unique products he manufactures.

How did you start New Dublin Ship Fittings?

I went to school for machine shop and then mechanical engineering, only to end up working as a boat builder for 15 years. It was during my time as a boat builder that I started making hardware in my free time for projects we were working on. Eventually, that grew into full-time work. Right now, we manufacture custom silicon bronze and stainless fittings only. Eventually, we will move into a bronze hardware product line.

Where did your passion for marine hardware come from?

I’ve always loved metalworking. I grew up playing in my father’s knife shop, so when I got into wooden boats, it was only a matter of time before I started making small bits of hardware. Before hardware, I would play around making woodworking tools such as chisels, hand planes, spokeshaves, etc.

What can be found in your shop?

The shop has a 13”x 30” and 16”x 60” manual lathe, a Bridgeport Milling Machine, Burgmaster Turret Drill Press, Gang Drill, Bandsaw, 30-ton hydraulic press, #2 Hossfeld Bender, GTAW, and GMAW Welding Machines, as well as a full foundry set up with 90 pounds of bronze pour capacity. We generally only work in 655 silicon bronze and 316 stainless steel.

What projects have you worked on that stand out to you?

I’ve been lucky to work on several amazing projects over the years. Two that stand out are a 48’ Motorsailer Ketch built by Tern Boatworks, as well as the 63’ Fusion Schooner Farfarer, built by Covey Island Boatworks. Both boats we built most of the bronze deck hardware for.

I’ve made many interesting fittings over the years. I prefer to work with bronze, so I generally have the most fun working on those. I’m generally the most interested when the part is very
challenging to make and custom work parts are often very challenging. I’m asked to build or machine a component that was originally built in a factory and is difficult to reproduce with limited machinery and tooling, but I enjoy figuring out how to make it work.

Why is high-quality tooling important to you?

When I first started I would buy cheaper tooling to “get by” but the longer I did it, the more I realized that cheaper tooling doesn’t pay off. If you want to do quality work in a timely fashion, you need to invest in good tooling.

What Micro 100 Tools are you currently using?

Currently, we just have the Micro 100 brazed on tooling but we have been trying to move more into inserts so we are going to try out Micro’s indexable tooling line. After receiving the Micro-Quik™ Quick Change System, we are looking forward to trying out more of what (Micro 100) has to offer. This new system should help us reduce tool change time, saving us some money in the long run.

What makes New Dublin Ship Fittings stand out from the competition?

I think the real value I can offer boat builders and owners over a standard job shop is my experience with building boats. I understand how the fitting will be used and can offer suggestions as to how to improve the design.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist what would it be?

The advice I would give to new machinists is to start slow and learn the machines and techniques before you try to make parts quickly. There is a lot of pressure in shops to make parts as fast as possible, but you’ll never be as fast as you can be if you don’t learn the processes properly first. Also, learn to sharpen drill bits well!

Benefits & Drawbacks of High and Low Helix Angles

While many factors impact the outcome of a machining operation, one often overlooked factor is the cutting tool’s helix angle. The Helix angle of a tool is measured by the angle formed between the centerline of the tool and a straight line tangent along the cutting edge.

A higher helix angle, usually 40° or more, will wrap around the tool “faster,” while a “slower” helix angle is usually less than 40°.

When choosing a tool for a machining operation, machinists often consider the material, the tooling dimensions and the flute count. The helix angle must also be considered to contribute to efficient chip evacuation, better part finish, prolonged tool life, and reduced cycle times.

Helix Angles Rule of Thumb

One general rule of thumb is that as the helix angle increases, the length of engagement along the cutting edge will decrease. That said,
there are many benefits and drawbacks to slow and high helix angles that can impact any machining operation.

Slow Helix Tool <40°

Benefits

  • Enhanced Strength – A larger core creates a strong tool that can resist deflection, or the force that will bend a tool under pressure.
  • Reduced Lifting – A slow helix will decrease a part from lifting off of the worktable in settings that are less secure.
  • Larger Chip Evacuation – The slow helix allows the tool to create a large chip, great for hogging out material.

Drawbacks

  • Rough Finish – A slow helix end mill takes a large chip, but can sometimes struggle to evacuate the chip. This inefficiency can result in a sub-par part finish.
  • Slower Feed Rate – The increased radial force of a slow helix end mill requires running the end mill at a slower feed rate.

High Helix Tool >40°

Benefits

  • Lower Radial Force – The tool will run quieter and smoother due to better shearing action, and allow for less deflection and more stability in thin wall applications.
  • Efficient Chip Evacuation – As the helix angle increases, the length of cutting edge engagement will decrease, and the axial force will increase. This lifts chips out and away, resulting in efficient chip evacuation.
  • Improved Part Finish – With lower radial forces, high helix tools are able to cut through material much more easily with a better shearing action, leaving an improved surface finish.

Drawbacks

  • Weaker Cutting Teeth – With a higher helix, the teeth of a tool will be thinner, and therefore thinner.
  • Deflection Risk – The smaller teeth of the high helix tool will increase the risk of deflection, or the force that will bend a tool under pressure. This limits how fast you can push high helix tools.
  • Increased Risk of Tool Failure – If deflection isn’t properly managed, this can result in a poor finish quality and tool failure.

Helix Angle: An Important Decision

In summary, a machinist must consider many factors when choosing tools for each application. Among the material, the finish requirements, and acceptable run times, a machinist must also consider the helix angle of each tool being used. A slow helix end mill will allow for larger chip formation, increased tool strength and reduce lifting forces. However, it may not leave an excellent finish. A high helix end mill will allow for efficient chip evacuation and excellent part finish, but may be subject to increased deflection, which can lead to tool breakage if not properly managed.

Axis CNC Inc. – Featured Customer

Axis CNC Inc was founded in 2012 in Ware, Massachusetts, when Dan and Glenn Larzus, a father and son duo, decided to venture into the manufacturing industry. Axis CNC Inc has provided customers with the highest quality manufacturing, machining, and programming services since they’ve opened. They specialize in manufacturing medical equipment and have a passion for making snowmobile parts.

We sat down with Axis CNC Inc to discuss how they got started and what they have learned over there years in the manufacturing world. Watch our video below to see our full interview.

Selecting the Right Chamfer Cutter Tip Geometry

A chamfer cutter, or a chamfer mill, can be found at any machine shop, assembly floor, or hobbyist’s garage. These cutters are simple tools that are used for chamfering or beveling any part in a wide variety of materials. There are many reasons to chamfer a part, ranging from fluid flow and safety, to part aesthetics.

Due to the diversity of needs, tooling manufacturers offer many different angles and sizes of chamfer cutters, and as well as different types of chamfer cutter tip geometries. Harvey Tool, for instance, offers 21 different angles per side, ranging from 15° to 80°, flute counts of 2 to 6, and shank diameters starting at 1/8” up to 1 inch.

After finding a tool with the exact angle they’re looking for, a customer may have to choose a certain chamfer cutter tip that would best suit their operation. Common types of chamfer cutter tips include pointed, flat end, and end cutting. The following three types of chamfer cutter tip styles, offered by Harvey Tool, each serve a unique purpose.

Three Types of Harvey Tool Chamfer Cutters

Type I: Pointed

This style of chamfer cutter is the only Harvey Tool option that comes to a sharp point. The pointed tip allows the cutter to perform in smaller grooves, slots, and holes, relative to the other two types. This style also allows for easier programming and touch-offs, since the point can be easily located. It’s due to its tip that this version of the cutter has the longest length of cut (with the tool coming to a finished point), compared to the flat end of the other types of chamfer cutters. With only a 2 flute option, this is the most straightforward version of a chamfer cutter offered by Harvey Tool.

Type II: Flat End, Non-End Cutting

Type II chamfer cutters are very similar to the type I style, but feature an end that’s ground down to a flat, non-cutting tip. This flat “tip” removes the pointed part of the chamfer, which is the weakest part of the tool. Due to this change in tool geometry, this tool is given an additional measurement for how much longer the tool would be if it came to a point. This measurement is known as “distance to theoretical sharp corner,” which helps with the programming of the tool. The advantage of the flat end of the cutter now allows for multiple flutes to exist on the tapered profile of the chamfer cutter. With more flutes, this chamfer has improved tool life and finish. The flat, non-end cutting tip flat does limit its use in narrow slots, but another advantage is a lower profile angle with better angular velocity at the tip.

Type III: Flat End, End Cutting

Type III chamfer cutters are an improved and more advanced version of the type II style. The type III boasts a flat end tip with 2 flutes meeting at the center, creating a center cutting-capable version of the type II cutter. The center cutting geometry of this cutter makes it possible to cut with its flat tip. This cutting allows the chamfer cutter to lightly cut into the top of a part to the bottom of it, rather than leave material behind when cutting a chamfer. There are many situations where blending of a tapered wall and floor is needed, and this is where these chamfer cutters shine. The tip diameter is also held to a tight tolerance, which significantly helps with programing it.

In conclusion, there could be many suitable cutters for a single job, and there are many questions you must ask prior to picking your ideal tool. Choosing the right angle comes down to making sure that the angle on the chamfer cutter matches the angle on the part. One needs to be cautious of how the angles are called out, as well. Is the angle an “included angle” or “angle per side?” Is the angle called off of the vertical or horizontal? Next, the larger the shank diameter, the stronger the chamfer and the longer the length of cut, but now, interference with walls or fixtures need to be considered. Flute count comes down to material and finish. Softer materials tend to want less flutes for better chip evacuation, while more flutes will help with finish. After addressing each of these considerations, the correct style of chamfer for your job should be abundantly clear.

How to Select a Spindle

When trying to develop efficient processes, many machinists and programmers turn to tool selection first. It is true that tooling can often make a big difference in machining time, and speeds and feeds, but did you know that your machine’s spindle can have an equally impactful effect? The legs of any CNC machine, spindles are comprised of a motor, a taper for holding tools, and a shaft that will hold all of the components together. Often powered by electricity, spindles rotate on an axis which receives its input from the machine’s CNC controller.

Why is Choosing the Right Spindle Important?

Choosing the right spindle to machine your workpiece with is of very high importance to a successful production run. As tooling options continue to grow, it is important to know what tooling your spindle can utilize. Large diameter tools such as large end mills or face mills typically require slower spindle speeds and take deeper cuts to remove vast amounts of material. These applications require supreme machine rigidity and require a spindle with high torque.

Contrastingly, smaller diameter tools will need a higher-speed spindle. Faster speeds and feeds deliver better surface finishes and are used in a variety of applications. A good rule of thumb is that an end mill that is a half inch or smaller will run well with lower torque.

Types of CNC Spindles

After finding out what you should look for in a spindle, it is time to learn about your different options. Spindles typically vary by the type, style of the taper, or its size. The taper is the conical portion of the tool holder that fits inside of the opening of the spindle. Every spindle is designed to mate with a certain taper style and size.

CAT and BT Holders

This is the most widely utilized holder for milling in the United States. Referred to as “V-flange holders,” both of these styles need a retention knob or pull stud to be secured within the machine spindle. The BT (metric style) is popular overseas.

HSK Holders

This type of holder is a German standard known as “hollow shank taper.” The tapered portion of the holder is much shorter than its counterparts. It also engages the spindle in a different way and does not require a pull stud or retention knob. The HSK holder is utilized to create repeatability and longer tool life – particularly in High Efficiency Milling (HEM) applications.

All of these holders have benefits and limitations including price, accuracy, and availability. The proper selection will depend largely on your application requirements.

Torque vs. Horsepower

Torque is defined as force perpendicular to the axis of rotation across a distance. It is important to have high torque capabilities when using an end mill larger than ½ inch, or when machining a difficult material such as Inconel. Torque will help put power behind the cutting action of the tool.

Horsepower refers to the amount of work being done. Horsepower is important for smaller diameter end mills and easy-to-machine materials like aluminum.

You can think of torque as a tractor: It can’t go very fast, but there is a lot of power behind it. Think of horsepower as a racecar: It can go very fast but cannot pull or push.

Torque-Horsepower Chart

Every machine and spindle should come with a torque horsepower chart. These charts will help you understand how to maximize your spindle for torque or horsepower, depending on what you need:

Image Source: HAAS Machine Manual

Proper Spindle Size

The size of the spindle and shank taper corresponds to the weight and length of the tools being used, as well as the material you are planning to machine. CAT40 is the most commonly used spindle in the United States. These spindles are great for utilizing tools that have a ½ inch diameter end mill or smaller in any material. If you are considering using a 1 inch end mill in a material like Inconel or Titanium, a CAT50 would be a more appropriate choice. The higher the taper angle is, the more torque the spindle is capable of.

While choosing the correct tool for your application is important, choosing a tool your spindle can utilize is paramount to machining success. Knowing the amount of torque required will help machinists save a lot of headaches.

How Boring Bar Geometries Impact Cutting Operations

Boring is a turning operation that allows a machinist to make a pre-existing hole bigger through multiple iterations of internal boring. It has a number of advantages over traditional drilling methods:

  • The ability to cost-effectively produce a hole outside standard drill sizes
  • The creation of more precise holes, and therefore tighter tolerances
  • A greater finish quality
  • The opportunity to create multiple dimensions within the bore itself

 

Solid carbide boring bars, such as those offered by Micro 100,  have a few standard dimensions that give the tool basic functionality in removing material from an internal bore. These include:

Minimum Bore Diameter (D1): The minimum diameter of a hole for the cutting end of the tool to completely fit inside without making contact at opposing sides

Maximum Bore Depth (L2): Maximum depth that the tool can reach inside a hole without contact from the shank portion

Shank Diameter (D2): Diameter of the portion of the tool in contact with the tool holder

Overall Length (L1): Total length of the tool

Centerline Offset (F): The distance between a tool’s tip and the shank’s centerline axis

Tool Selection

In order to minimize tool deflection and therefore risk of tool failure, it is important to choose a tool with a max bore depth that is only slightly larger than the length it is intended to cut. It is also beneficial to maximize the boring bar and shank diameter as this will increase the rigidity of the tool. This must be balanced with leaving enough room for chips to evacuate. This balance ultimately comes down to the material being bored. A harder material with a lower feed rate and depths of cut may not need as much space for chips to evacuate, but may require a larger and more rigid tool. Conversely, a softer material with more aggressive running parameters will need more room for chip evacuation, but may not require as rigid of a tool.

Geometries

In addition, they have a number of different geometric features in order to adequately handle the three types of forces acting upon the tool during this machining process. During a standard boring operation, the greatest of these forces is tangential, followed by feed (sometimes called axial), and finally radial. Tangential force acts perpendicular to the rake surface and pushes the tool away from the centerline. Feed force does not cause deflection, but pushes back on the tool and acts parallel to the centerline. Radial force pushes the tool towards the center of the bore.

 

Defining the Geometric Features of Boring Bars:

Nose Radius: the roundness of a tool’s cutting point

Side Clearance (Radial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the nose relative to the axis parallel to the centerline of the tool

End Clearance (Axial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the axis running perpendicular to the centerline of the tool

Side Rake Angle: The angle measuring the sideways tilt of the side face of the tool

Back Rake Angle: The angle measuring the degree to which the back face is tilted in relation to the centerline of the workpiece

Side Relief Angle: The angle measuring how far the bottom face is tilted away from the workpiece

End Relief Angle: The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the line running perpendicular to the center axis of the tool

Effects of Geometric Features on Cutting Operations:

Nose Radius: A large nose radius makes more contact with the workpiece, extending the life of the tool and the cutting edge as well as leaving a better finish. However, too large of a radius will lead to chatter as the tool is more exposed to tangential and radial cutting forces.

Another way this feature affects the cutting action is in determining how much of the cutting edge is struck by tangential force. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent on the feed and depth of cut. Different combinations of depth of cuts and nose angles will result in either shorter or longer lengths of the cutting edge being exposed to the tangential force. The overall effect being the degree of edge wear. If only a small portion of the cutting edge is exposed to a large force it would be worn down faster than if a longer portion of the edge is succumb to the same force. This phenomenon also occurs with the increase and decrease of the end cutting edge angle.

End Cutting Edge Angle: The main purpose of the end cutting angle is for clearance when cutting in the positive Z direction (moving into the hole). This clearance allows the nose radius to be the main point of contact between the tool and the workpiece. Increasing the end cutting edge angle in the positive direction decreases the strength of the tip, but also decreases feed force. This is another situation where balance of tip strength and cutting force reduction must be found. It is also important to note that the angle may need to be changed depending on the type of boring one is performing.

Side Rake Angle: The nose angle is one geometric dimension that determines how much of the cutting edge is hit by tangential force but the side rake angle determines how much that force is redistributed into radial force. A positive rake angle means a lower tangential cutting force as allows for a greater amount of shearing action. However, this angle cannot be too great as it compromises cutting edge integrity by leaving less material for the nose angle and side relief angle.

Back Rake Angle: Sometimes called the top rake angle, the back rake angle for solid carbide boring bars is ground to help control the flow of chips cut on the end portion of the tool. This feature cannot have too sharp of a positive angle as it decreases the tools strength.

Side and End Relief Angles: Like the end cutting edge angle, the main purpose of the side and end relief angles are to provide clearance so that the tools non-cutting portion doesn’t rub against the workpiece. If the angles are too small then there is a risk of abrasion between the tool and the workpiece. This friction leads to increased tool wear, vibration and poor surface finish. The angle measurements will generally be between 0° and 20°.

Boring Bar Geometries Summarized

Boring bars have a few overall dimensions that allow for the boring of a hole without running the tool holder into the workpiece, or breaking the tool instantly upon contact. Solid carbide boring bars have a variety of angles that are combined differently to distribute the 3 types of cutting forces in order to take full advantage of the tool. Maximizing tool performance requires the combination of choosing the right tool along with the appropriate feed rate, depth of cut and RPM. These factors are dependent on the size of the hole, amount of material that needs to be removed, and mechanical properties of the workpiece.

 

The Geometries and Purposes of a Slitting Saw

When a machinist needs to cut material significantly deeper than wide, a Slitting Saw is an ideal choice to get the job done. A Slitting Saw is unique due to its composition and rigidity, which allows it to hold up in a variety of both straightforward and tricky to machine materials.

What is a Slitting Saw?

A Slitting Saw is a flat (with or without a dish), circular-shaped saw that has a hole in the middle and teeth on the outer diameter. Used in conjunction with an arbor, a Slitting Saw is intended for machining purposes that require a large amount of material to be removed within a small diameter, such as slotting or cutoff applications.

Other names for Slitting Saws include (but are not limited to) Slitting Cutters, Slotting Cutters, Jewelers Saws, and Slitting Knives. Both Jewelers Saws and Slitting Knives are particular types of Slitting Saws. Jewelers Saws have a high tooth count enabling them to cut tiny, precise features, and Slitting Knives are Slitting Saws with no teeth at all. On Jewelers Saws, the tooth counts are generally much higher than other types of saws in order to make the cuts as accurate as possible.

Key Terminology

Why Use a Slitting Saw?

These saws are designed for cutting into both ferrous and non-ferrous materials, and by utilizing their unique shape and geometries, they can cut thin slot type features on parts more efficiently than any other machining tool.

Common Applications:

  1. Separating Two Pieces of Material
    1. If an application calls for cutting a piece of material, such as a rod, in half, then a slitting saw will work well to cut the pieces apart while increasing efficiency.
  2. Undercutting Applications
    1. Saws can perform undercutting applications if mounted correctly, which can eliminate the need to remount the workpiece completely.
  3. Slotting into Material
    1. Capable of creating thin slots with a significant depth of cut, Slitting Saws can be just the right tool for the job!

When Not to Use a Slitting Saw

While it may look similar to a stainless steel circular saw blade from a hardware store, a Slitting Saw should never be used with construction tools such as a table or circular saw.  Brittle saw blades such as slitting saws will shatter when used on manual machines, and can cause injury when not used on the proper set up.

In Conclusion

Slitting Saws can be beneficial to a wide variety of machining processes, and it is vital to understand their geometries and purpose before attempting to utilize them in the shop. They are a great tool to have in the shop and can assist with getting jobs done as quickly and efficiently as possible.

How to Advance Your Machining Career: 8 Tips from Machining Pros

Since we began shining a light on Harvey Performance Company brand customers via “In the Loupe’s,” Featured Customer posts, more than 20 machinists have been asked to share insight relevant to how they’ve achieved success. Each Featured Customer post includes interesting and useful information on a variety of machining-related subjects, including prototyping ideas, expanding a business, getting into machining, advantages and disadvantages of utilizing different milling machine types, and more. This post compiles 8 useful tips from our Featured Customers on ways to advance your machining career.

Tip 1: Be Persistent – Getting Your Foot in the Door is Half the Battle

With machining technology advancing at the amazing rate that it is, there is no better time to become a machinist. It is a trade that is constantly improving, and offers so many opportunities for young people. Eddie Casanueva of Nueva Precision first got into machining when he was in college, taking a job at an on-campus research center for manufacturing systems to support himself.

“The research center had all the workings of a machine shop,” Eddie said. “There were CNC mills, lathes, injection molding machines, and more. It just looked awesome. I managed to get hired for a job at minimum wage sweeping the shop floor and helping out where I could.

As a curious student, I would ask a million questions… John – an expert machinist – took me under his wing and taught me lots of stuff about machining. I started buying tools and building out my toolbox with him for a while, absorbing everything that I could.”

One of the best things about becoming a machinist is that there is a fairly low entry barrier. Many machinists start working right out of high school, with 12-18 months of on-the-job training or a one to two year apprenticeship. Nearly 70% of the machinist workforce is over the age of 45. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is predicting a 10% increase in the machinist workforce with opportunities for 29,000 additional skilled machinists by 2024, so it is certainly a great time to get your foot in the door.

Tip 2: Keep an Open Mind – If You Can Think of It, You Can Machine It

Being open-minded is crucial to becoming the best machinist you can be. By keeping an open mind, Oklahoma City-based company Okluma’s owner Jeff Sapp has quickly earned a reputation for his product as one of the best built and most reliable flashlights on the market today. Jeff’s idea for Okluma came to him while riding his motorcycle across the country.

“I had purchased what I thought was a nice flashlight for $50 to carry with me on the trip. However, two days in to the trip the flashlight broke. Of course, it was dark and I was in the middle of nowhere trying to work on my bike. I’m happy to pay for good tools, but that wasn’t what happened. Not only was there no warranty for replacement, there was no way to fix it. It was just made to be thrown away. That whole attitude makes me angry. When I got home, I decided I was going to put my new skills to work and design and build my own flashlight, with the goal of never running into an issue like I had on my trip ever again. I started by making one for myself, then four, then twenty. That was four years ago. Now I have my own business with one employee and two dogs, and we stay very busy.”

An awesome side benefit to working as a machinist is that you have all the resources to create anything you can dream of, like Jeff did with Okluma.

Image courtesy of Okluma.

Tip 3: Be Patient – Take Time to Ensure Your Job is Setup Correctly before Beginning

The setup process is a huge part of machining, but is often overlooked. Alex Madsen, co- owner of M5 Micro in Minnesota, has been working in manufacturing for more than 11 years. Alex is also a part owner of World Fabrication, and owns his own job shop called Madsen Machine and Design. Alex has spent countless hours perfecting his setup to improve his part times.

“It is certainly challenging to use little tools, but the key is to not get discouraged. You should plan on lots of trial and error; breaking tools is just a part of the game. You may buy ten end mills and break six, but once you dial one in it will last the rest of the job.

You should also make sure to put extra time and effort into understanding your machine when working on micromachining jobs. You need to know where there is any backlash or issues with the machine because with a tiny tool, even an extra .0003” cut can mean the end of your tool. When a difference of one tenth can make or break your job, you need to take your time and be extra careful with your machine, tool inspection, and programming before you hit run.”

Tip 4: Effort Pays Off – Long Hours Result in Shop Growth

Success isn’t earned overnight. That is especially true in the machining world. Becoming a good machinist takes a great deal of sacrifice, says Josh from Fleet Machine Co. in Gloucester, MA.

“Opening your own shop involves more than learning how to program and machine. You also need to be willing to sacrifice some of your free time by working long hours to build your business from the ground up. Being a great machinist is important, but you also need to understand the basics of business, and you need to be able to sell your service and maintain a certain level of quality to keep your customers coming back.”

Working hard is a common theme we hear from our featured customers. Brothers Geordan and Nace Roberts of Master Machine Manufacturing have similar advice.

“We often need to work odd hours of the day to maintain the business, but we do it in a way that makes sure we have our family time. There are many times where we will go home, have dinner and hang out with the family, and wait until they are all sleeping to go back to work until two or three a.m. We will get back home later that morning to sleep a little and have breakfast with the family and send them on their way before heading back into the shop.” Starting and growing a business takes time. Every machinist starts from the beginning and through hard work and determination, grows their business.

Image courtesy of Liberty Machine Inc.

Tip 5: Utilize Tooling from Quality Manufacturers – All Tooling Isn’t Created Equal

 

When it comes down to it, tooling is singlehandedly the biggest choice you will make as a machinist. Grant Hughson, manufacturing engineer at Weiss Watch Company who works as a manufacturing instructor in his spare time, reflected on the importance of tooling.

“Tool to tool accuracy and performance is vital in this business, especially with our extremely tight tolerances. High quality tools make sure that we get the same performance time after time without needing to scrap parts. This saves us valuable time and money.”

While opting for cheaper tooling can appear to be beneficial when just starting out, before long, machinists are losing time and money because of unpredictability. Jonathan from TL Technologies echoed this point, saying:

“We feel that if we invested so much in these high-end machining centers, it would be criminal to put insufficient tooling and holders into them. We found that by selecting the proper tool with the appropriate sciences behind it we have been able to create products with a cost per cut that is not only competitive, but required to stay current. By keeping the quality as high as possible on the part making side of things, we’ve insured as much ease and reliability into our downstream process as we could. Quality tooling also provides predictability and added safety into the workflow. High-quality carbide tooling is the lifeblood of the business.”

Additional Thoughts Regarding Boosting Your Machining Career With Tooling:

Don’t Cheap Out

  • “The additional cost is always worth the payoff in the end knowing that you have a tool that will produce quality parts and shave valuable minutes off your cycle times. The slightly higher cost of the Harvey/Helical product is small change compared to the long term cost savings associated with their performance” – Seth, Liberty Machine

Consistency is Key

  • “We know the performance we are going to get from the tools is consistent, and we can always rely on getting immaculate finishes. While using the Harvey Tool and Helical product, we can confidently walk away from the machine and come back to a quality finished part every time.” – Bennett, RIT Baja SAE

Superior Specialty Tools

  • “One of the greatest things that I’ve experienced over the past year and a half is flexibility. We’ve asked for some specific tools to be made typically, the lead times that we found were beyond what we needed. We went through the Helical specials division and had them built within a couple of weeks. That was a game changer for us.” – Tom, John Force Racing

“Having high quality tooling like Helical is essential. Helical tools help us maintain a much higher machining efficiency because of the outstanding tool life, while also achieving more aggressive run times. In addition, we are able to consistently keep high tolerances, resulting in a better final product.” – Cameron, Koenig Knives

Tip 6: Get With the Times – Join the Social Media Community

Social media is a valuable tool for machinists. With ever-increasing popularity in networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram, there will always be an audience to showcase new and unique products to. We asked a few of our featured customers how they incorporated social media into their machining and the benefits that come along with it.

“A lot of our sales come through Instagram or Facebook, so I would recommend those platforms to anyone who is trying to start a business,” Jeff from Okluma said. “We have also had a lot of success collaborating with others in the community. Typically it is something we couldn’t do ourselves, or they couldn’t do themselves, so we share the labor and collaborate on some really cool items.”

Tip 7: Value Your Customers – Always Put Them First

“In the Loupe’s” featured customers repeatedly emphasized the importance of putting customers first. It’s a simple concept to master, and pays off immensely. Repeat customers tell you that you are doing something right, said Brian Ross, owner of Form Factory.

“We have kept our customers happy and consistently deliver parts on time, so we get a lot of repeat business. Word definitely gets around on how you treat people so we try to treat everyone with respect and honesty which is key to running a good business.” Jeff from Okluma takes great pride in his customer service, saying “we only sell direct to consumers through our website so we can control our lifetime warranty. It has worked really well for us so far, so we have no plans to change that right now. I care more about our customers than any retailer is able to.”

Image courtesy of MedTorque.

Tip 8: Never Stop Learning – Ask Questions Whenever You Can

Hopefully some of these tips from our featured customers stuck with you. To leave you with a quote from of Seth Madore, owner of Liberty Machine, “Don’t stop learning. Keep your ears open and your mouth shut,” “That old guy in the shop has likely forgotten more than you will ever learn. The amount of tools in your Kennedy box doesn’t mean you’re a good machinist. Some of the best toolmakers I knew had small boxes with only the common tools. Learn how to excel with limited resources. Ask questions, and own up to your mistakes.”

Nueva Precision – Featured Customer

When it comes to CNC manufacturing services and product development solutions in the Denver, Colorado area, Eddie Casanueva has quickly made a name for himself with his company, Nueva Precision. Eddie has more than 22 years of manufacturing experience and 19 years of business experience, which he uses to help small businesses and entrepreneurs who are looking for product support and development.

Eddie was able to take time out of his busy schedule to talk with us for this Featured Customer post. We covered topics like Eddie’s incredible training and introduction to manufacturing, his experiences using reduced neck end mills, and his suggestions for must-have equipment in any CNC machine shop.

Thanks for taking the time to talk to us for this Featured Customer post. To get started, tell us a little bit about the history behind Nueva Precision and what sort of products you typically manufacture.

Nueva Precision was first incorporated at the end of 2016. Within three months, I was making chips on my own, largely doing prototype work.

I had recently sold my share in another company I co-founded and used that money to move into a larger home in the Denver area that could accommodate a machine shop business. We were lucky enough to find a home with some acreage and an existing oversized garage which was perfect for a shop. Now that I had the building, I had to do things like get the electrical and HVAC up to spec. It required having the city run a stronger electrical line to the building I would use as my shop, but once that was all figured out, we were ready to make some chips.

Nueva Precision

I started by buying a used Haas mill and a used Haas lathe. People initially reached out to me for work because of my quick delivery times. I was able to turn around parts in just a week or two since the business was new. However, within a month of operating those machines, I was already at max capacity with my current equipment. Unfortunately, my lead times had increased to a more standard 4-6 weeks due to the sheer amount of work I was getting. For the rest of 2017, I stuck with my original equipment and just did the best I could to keep up.

nueva precision

Do you have any future plans to expand your shop and capabilities further?

I do! In early 2018 I brought in a brand new VM3 Haas Mill to keep up with demand, but I was curious about how much more revenue that would create. I expected to see a 20-30% increase in revenue, but having another machine ended up doubling my revenue. Luckily my strong relationships with my customers helped me grow the business even as my lead times increased. With that in mind, I just ordered another Haas VM2 at the end of 2018 and am excited to take full advantage of that.

How has your family reacted to you running a business out of your home?

My family has been extremely supportive throughout the whole process. My wife Leandra in particular helps out a lot. She was a teacher for 19 years, but resigned from that profession to work on Nueva Precision. She has started to help out on the business side of things and has also started to help run machines and make parts. My oldest son Jaden (16) is interested in manufacturing and he has started working and making simple parts for us when he is available. All in all, we have a pretty good thing going here.

Eddie and Leandra Nueva Precision

Eddie and Leandra

Jaden nueva precision

Jaden working on parts

How did you first get involved in CNC machining and advanced manufacturing?

I am essentially self-taught in CNC machining. I got started in engineering and manufacturing as a student at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) in the Mechanical Engineering program. It was a state school, so tuition costs weren’t bad but I still needed to support myself. I was going to school during the day and pumping gas at night to pay the bills. In my second year in school I came across an opportunity to work at an on-campus research center for manufacturing systems. It was funded by the state of New Jersey to help promote New Jersey industry. The job didn’t have much to do with my curriculum, but they supported some campus research and worked closely with the college on various projects.

The research center had all the workings of a machine shop. There were CNC mills, lathes, injection molding machines, and more. It just looked awesome. I managed to get hired for a job at minimum wage sweeping the shop floor and helping out where I could.

As a curious student, I would ask a million questions of all the machinists and try to do more and more than the usual student employee. John – a talented toolmaker and experienced machinist – took me under his wing and taught me lots of stuff about machining. I started buying tools and building out my toolbox with him for a while, absorbing everything that I could. Next thing I know, they’re handing me prints and I am making parts. A few months down the road the machinists started teaching me programming on a Mazak controller. This went on for a year or so and I just soaked it all in.

nueva precision

Sounds like great experience! Where did you land your first full-time position in manufacturing?

I actually landed my first full-time job at the same manufacturing research center. The center had a CNC machinist programmer resign at the facility, so there was a job opening posted. I went to the director of the center and said I was interested in the position. I knew I had to work a lot to pay my tuition, and if I worked for the university I could get my tuition paid for while also making some real money. The director recommended me for the position, so I interviewed and landed the job. All of a sudden, I had benefits, vacation, real responsibilities, and full-time pay. I flipped my schedule around so I could go to school during nights and work during the day.

I learned so much about machining in my first job because of the unique situation I was in. Companies like Blaser Swisslube, Kennametal, and GibbsCAM were supplying us with product and support to work on process improvements for large New Jersey corporations like BF Goodrich Aerospace, US Can, etc. It progressed to the point where GibbsCAM was actually sending me to seminars to train me on different industry topics to further my education and improve the reports we were outputting.

nueva precision

I was in an amazing position to get all this training and I learned so much in the next 4-5 years. We had equipment like a Fadal 5-Axis CNC Machine and other high tech machines at my disposal, which were very hard to find at the time (mid-1990s). Nobody outside of the most elite machine shops were working in 5-axis, so I had a head start because of this unique job experience.

I actually never finished my degree and instead dove head first into manufacturing. I started my own business on the side and kept working at the research center until 2001 when I left to focus full-time on my new business, Spidertrax Offroad.

Can you tell us more about your experience with Spidertrax Offroad?

Spidertrax Offroad is a manufacturer of drivetrain parts for off-roading vehicles. I started Spidertrax with a partner whom I met in college. The company actually started making our first parts at the research center I was employed at. I asked my boss if I could start making parts off the clock on my own time, and he agreed to let me use the shop. This would have been around 1998, and by 2001 I was ready to take off on my own. My partner and I built that company up to 20 employees, and we were (and they still are) a well-respected brand in the off-roading community.

The hardest part about operating my own business and watching it grow was losing the ability to get out in the shop and actually do what I love, which is making parts. As the business grew, I had to take on more responsibility as a “business man,” and let go of many of the things I enjoyed doing as a machinist. I was very proud of what we had built, but I really wanted to get back to basics. So, in early 2017 I sold my half of Spidertrax Offroad to my partner and took that money to buy the new house and open Nueva Precision, Inc.

What sort of machines and CAM software do you have in your new shop?

Right now for CNC machines I have a 2018 Haas VM3, a 2018 Hass VM2, a 2012 Haas VF2, and a 2012 Haas TL2. I also have an engine lathe, a Bridgeport knee mill, Kaeser screw compressor, which I absolutely love, and a couple of Jet saws.

For software, I still use GibbsCAM. I have been using GibbsCAM since 1996 and have had countless hours of training and experience using it, so I think I’m a lifer.

haas vf2

Outside of tooling, what are some key components of your machining setup that you would recommend to others?

I started Nueva Precision without any sort of probing system in place, and using an umbrella style tool changer. I found out quickly that my time, especially being alone, is worth a lot. I highly recommend getting a solid probing system as well as a side mount tool changer. I added all of that to my VM3 and the effect was immediately noticeable. It is so much more efficient and faster.

Keeping software up-to-date is also key. It can be expensive, but it speaks for itself in just a few months. Any time I invest in technology, it seems to pay off pretty quick.

5th axis workholding

I also feel strongly about having solid workholding. I have a couple of the 5th Axis self-centering vises which are great, and a handful of Kurt vises, as well. I am also a big fan of the MMM-USA guys and their vise jaws and handles. For my shop, flexibility is key because I never know what can come through the door. I don’t do a lot of production work and spend much more time on prototype work, so flexibility is key. Having good quality workholding that I don’t need to worry about lets me swap parts in and out with ease.

As for tool holding, I ran into an issue last year where I was starting to see a lot of tool pullout and was scrapping too many parts as a result of aggressive roughing. I had to find a better solution, and I came across the REGO-FIX PowRgrip system. It might seem expensive compared to other simpler tool holder, but I think the upfront investment isn’t too bad considering the other options in that space. Again, I invested in technology, and immediately saw better results. I currently use the PowRgrip for finishing passes where I need good runout and heavy roughing where there is the highest risk of tool pullout.

REGO powRgrip

You use a lot of Helical’s Reduced Neck end mills. What are some tips or tricks you have learned by using these tools that you could share with others?

My experience with these tools is really new, but I find myself using more and more of them these days. In the beginning, I was afraid of end mills with a longer length of cut singing like crazy in the machine. I started experimenting with the reduced neck tools from Helical and was blown away by the rigidity. The tool pressure remains consistent throughout the part, so you will get the same great results on the top of the part as on the bottom.

I don’t know how many people are currently using them but it makes so much stuff possible. I have gone as large as ¾” diameter with the 5” reach and have never had an issue. Maintaining the low levels of runout is definitely key with these tools, which again comes back to having solid toolholding. Now that I have the REGO-FIX system, I am getting much better runout and plan to start pushing the reduced neck tools even harder.

helical reduced neck end mill

Most of my reduced neck end mills are the standard style, but the chipbreaker with the reduced neck has been a powerhouse for me as well. No matter what I tried with Helical’s reduced neck tooling, I have had success, so I would recommend the entire line if the situation calls for it. Just be careful with runout and make sure to double check your clearance!

What are some of your key Helical products that you use on a daily basis?

My main workhorse is Helical EDP 29422 – the ½” 45 Degree Chipbreaker for Aluminum. I swear I use that tool every single day across all of my machines. That tool is gold for me; it is night and day compared to standard roughers. It has a long enough flute length to be versatile or aggressive, depending on the situation. It is just a great tool. You will need a good holder for sure to keep it from pulling out when you get aggressive, but again my new software and tool holding helps with that.

helical solutions

Outside of performance, I love getting the smaller chips that the chipbreaker tools create. It is so much easier to clean a machine with small chips than long, stringy ones, which saves me time. I do all my roughing with chipbreakers. If you are making stringy chips while running HEM toolpaths, they can be a major pain to deal with.

My customers love the finish that Helical gives me as well. The wiper flat on the bottom of the H40ALV-3 end mill stands out as one of my favorite features on any of my tools. That tool gets me compliments on the floor finishes of pockets and enclosures all the time. Across the board, tool life and finish has been awesome with my Helical end mills. I currently use the Zplus coating for all my aluminum tools and have no complaints.

part finish

This summer I had the privilege of working on some aerospace parts that will be going up into space!  Most all parts were being machined from pre-hardened stainless steels and exotic alloys.  The Helical 5-flute and 7-flute endmills with the Aplus coating proved to be great tools to have in the arsenal.

What are your “go-to” Harvey Tool products?

For Harvey Tool, I use a lot of the full radius Keyseat Cutters to surface mill areas you can’t get to with a ball nose end mill. This saves me valuable time because I can avoid flipping the part to surface mill both sides by doing it all in one operation with the Keyseat Cutter.

keyseat cutter

Outside of the keyseats, I use a lot of miniature end mills with reduced shanks and chamfers mills in a variety of angles. I also use lollipops (undercutting end mills) to surface mill parts with hard-to-reach holes.

Overall, being able to look through a single catalog and find tons of options for neck diameters and cutter diameters is what sells me on the Harvey Tool product. It is really neat to have all those different tools available to me in one place – it’s a great catalog.


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Shank Tolerances, Collet Fits, & h6 Benefits

A cutting tool’s shank is one of the more vital parts of a tool, as it’s critical to the collet-tool connection. There are several types of shanks, each with their own tolerances and suitable tool holder methods. One of the most popular and effective tool holding styles is a shrink fit tool holder, which works with h6 shanks, but what does this mean and what are the benefits of it? How is this type of shank different from a shank with standard shank tolerances? To answer these questions, we must first explore the principals of tolerances.

The Principals of Tolerances

Defining Industry Standard Tolerances

There are two categories of shank tolerances that machinists and engineers operating a CNC machine should be familiar with: hole basis and shank (or shaft) basis. The hole basis system is where the minimum hole size is the starting point of the tolerance. If the hole tolerance starts with a capital “H,” then the hole has a positive tolerance with no negative tolerance. The shank basis system is where the maximum shank size is the starting point. This system is relatively the same idea as the hole basis system but instead, if the tolerance starts with a lowercase “h,” the shank has a negative tolerance and no positive tolerance.

Letter Designations

The limits of tolerance for a shank or hole are designated by the appropriate letter indicating the deviation. For instance, the letter “k” has the opposite minimum and maximum designations as “h”. Tolerances beginning with “k” are exclusively positive, while tolerances beginning with “h” are exclusively negative. The number following the given letter denotes the International Tolerance (IT) grade. For example, a tolerance with the number 6 will have a smaller tolerance range than the number 7, but larger than the number 5. This range is based on the size of the shank. A hole that has a 0.030” diameter will have an h6 tolerance of (+0.0000,-0.0002), while a 1.00” hole with have an h6 tolerance band of (+0.0000,-0.0005).

It is important to note that most sources list IT tolerances in millimeters, while the graph below has been translated to inches. Operations that require more precise manufacturing, such as reaming, will have lower IT grades. Operations that do not require manufacturing to be as precise will have higher IT grades.

shank tolerances

Preferred Collet Fits

Different types of combinations of hole basis and shank basis tolerances lead to different types of collet fits. The following table offers insight into a few different types of preferred fits and the shank tolerances that are required for each.

collet fits

Image: Machinery’s Handbook 29th Edition.

Shrink Fit Tool Holders

The shrink fit holder is one of the more popular styles of tool holders because of its ability to be more customizable, as evident in the chart above. In this method, a collet is heated to expand, then cooled to contract around the shank of a tool. At room temperature, a cutting tool should not be able to be inserted into a shrink fit holder – only when the holder has undergone thermal expansion due to the introduction of a significant amount of heat should the tool fit. As the holder cools, the tool is held tighter and tighter in place. Typically, a holder is heated through a ring of coils by an induction heater. It is important to heat the holder uniformly, paying mind to not overheat it. Doing so could cause the shank that is being held to expand within the holder and remain stuck.

 

Benefits of Shrink Fit Tool Holders

  1. Gripping power. The shank is held flush and uniform against the holder, resulting in a tighter connection.
  2. Low runout. A more secure connection will result in extended tool life, and a higher quality surface finish.
  3. Better balance for high RPM. With a tighter tool-to-holder connection, the opportunity exists for more aggressive running parameters.

Shank Tolerances Summarized

Understanding shank tolerances is an intricate part of the machining process as it impacts which tool holder is appropriate for your job. A secure holder connection is vital to the performance of the tool in your application. With an h6 shrink fit holder, the result is a secure connection with stronger gripping power. However, only certain shanks are able to be used with this type of holder. From the letter designation assigned to a shank, to whether that letter is upper or lowercase, each detail is vital to ensuring a proper fit between your tools shank and its corresponding shrink fit holder.