Tag Archive for: Chatter Marks

Titan USA 1K Follower Giveaway

*GIVEAWAY CLOSED – WINNER NOTIFIED*

As a thank you for reaching 1,000 followers on Instagram, we at Titan USA want to show our appreciation by giving all of our followers a chance to win a $150 Amazon gift card. With the addition of the Titan USA brand to the Harvey Performance Company family, we want to give our customers a chance to win.

How to Participate

All you need to do is follow the @titan.usa Instagram page, like the Giveaway post, and fill out the form below to gain an entry into the contest.

Entry Form

Official Contest Rules

Contest Dates:

  • The contest will run from September 12, 2022 to Semptember 19, 2022. Submit as many entries as you’d like! Entries that are submitted before or after the contest period will not be considered for the giveaway.

The Important Stuff:

  1. Follow Titan USA on Instagram
  2. Like the 1K Follower Giveaway post.
  3. Fill out the following form to make your initial entry.
  4. Additional entries will be given for:
    1. Creating an account on the Titan USA website.
    2. Leaving one comment tagging a friend on the Instagram post.
    3. Tagging @titan.usa in an Instagram post of your Titan USA tools.
    4. Leaving a review on a Titan USA product.

Prizes

All submissions and additional entries will be considered for the $150 Amazon gift card prize.

Winner of the giveaway will be chosen at random on September 22, 2022, notified on social media and be emailed the prize upon acceptance.

Full Details:

9/12/22

NO PURCHASE IS NECESSARY TO ENTER OR WIN. MAKING A PURCHASE WILL NOT INCREASE YOUR CHANCES OF WINNING. APPLICABLE ONLY IN THE UNITED STATES and CANADA. ENTRY INTO THIS SWEEPSTAKES CONSTITUTES ACCEPTANCE OF THESE OFFICIAL RULES. VOID WHERE PROHIBITED BY LAW.

By participating in the Harvey Performance Sweepstakes (the “Sweepstakes”), you agree to these official rules (the “Rules”), which are a contract, so read them carefully before participating. Without limitation, this contract includes indemnities to the Released Parties (defined below) from you and a limitation of your rights and remedies. You must follow these Rules to enter and be eligible to receive a prize in connection with the Sweepstakes.

DURATION:  Sweepstakes begins on September 12th, 2022 at 11 AM Eastern Daylight Time and ends September 19th, 2022 at 5 PM Eastern Daylight Time (“Sweepstakes Period”).  The computer clock of Harvey Performance Company, LLC (“Sponsor”) is the official time-keeping device for the Sweepstakes.

ELIGIBILITY: The Sweepstakes is open only to legal permanent residents of the United States (excluding Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Territories and Possessions) who are 21 years of age or older as of the date of entry. Employees, officers and directors of Sponsor along with its affiliates, subsidiaries, advertising, contest, fulfillment and marketing agencies, (collectively, “Promotion Parties”) their immediate families (parent, child, sibling & spouse and their respective spouses, regardless of where they reside) and persons living in the same households as such individuals (whether related or not) are not eligible to participate in the Sweepstakes. By participating, you agree to these Rules and to the decisions of the Sponsor, which are final and binding in all respects.  In addition, to be eligible to win, you must also execute and return Sponsor’s forms for you to: (i) consent to the use of your rights of publicity, (ii) assume all tax liabilities, (iii) waive all claims against Sponsor and Promotion Parties, and (iv) confirm your eligibility (collectively “Affidavits and Waivers”). This Sweepstakes is void in any jurisdiction not listed above and where prohibited by law, rule or regulation.

HOW TO ENTER: Follow the directions and complete the entry and submission form available at https://go.harveyperformance.com/l/186562/2022-07-12/2v8ly98 (the “Entry Form”), and following the Sponsor’s Instagram account.  Up to 5 additional entries can be made by providing e-mail addresses of friends that also fill out an entry form and follow Sponsor’s Instagram account.

ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF ENTRY: On a plain 3” x 5” card, legibly handprint or type your name, age, complete address, city, state, zip code, home phone number (including area code), and email address (if any). Then, mail your 3” x 5” card in a postage-affixed sealed envelope to:

428 Newburyport Turnpike, Rowley, MA 01969

If you do not provide an email address, we will call you if your name is selected. Otherwise, you will not be contacted regarding the outcome.

Mail-in entries must be postmarked by September 19th, 2022 and received by September 19th, 2022. No mechanically or programmatically reproduced entries are permitted. Each postcard is considered one (1) entry.  The information provided on such submitted 3” x 5” cards shall also be deemed part of the Entry Form.

PRIVACY POLICY:  Information collected in connection with this Sweepstakes will be used in accordance with Sponsor’s Official Privacy Policy (available at https://www.harveyperformance.com/privacy-policy/ and these Rules. In the event of any discrepancy between Sponsor’s Privacy Policy and these Rules, Sponsor’s Privacy Policy shall control and govern.

LIMITATIONS: Regardless of the method used to enter the Sweepstakes, either via the survey completion or mail-in or a combination of the two, the maximum number of entries allowed during the Sweepstakes is 6 per person.

Sponsor is not responsible for any entry that is lost, late, misdirected or undeliverable, whether due to system errors, omissions, interruption, deletions, defects, delay in operations or transmissions, theft or destruction or failures, faulty transmissions or other telecommunications malfunctions, entries not received resulting from any hardware or software failures of any kind, lost or unavailable network connections, failed, incomplete or garbled computer or telephone transmissions, typographical or system errors and failures, faulty trans-missions, technical malfunctions, or otherwise.

In the event of a dispute regarding the identity of the person submitting an entry, the entry will be deemed submitted by the authorized account holder at the time of entry. The authorized account holder is the natural person who is assigned to the account by Sponsor, the organization that is responsible for assigning accounts to customers. Potential winners may be required to show proof of being the authorized account holder.

Any attempt by an entrant to obtain more than the stated number of entries by using multiple/different email addresses, identities, registrations, logins, and/ or any other methods, including, but not limited to, automated entry, will void that entrant’s entries and that entrant may be disqualified from the Sweepstakes. Multiple participants are not permitted to share the same email address or Instagram account.

Sponsor will not verify receipt of entries for entrants. All entries submitted become the sole property of Sponsor. Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify those entries deemed to be inappropriate or in violation of this Sweepstakes (as defined solely by Sponsor).

Entries are void if they are incomplete, irregular or submitted improperly. Personal information (if any) collected through the Entry Form will be used only for purposes of (i) selecting and contacting the winners, and (ii) as identified in the Privacy Policy.

ODDS OF WINNING: The actual odds of winning will depend upon the actual number of total entries received for this Sweepstakes, regardless of the means of entry.

LIABILITY LIMITATION:  The Sponsor assumes no responsibility or liability for (a) lost, late, stolen, undelivered, inaccurate, incomplete, delayed, misdirected, damaged or garbled registrations, entries, URLs, or emails; (b) any incorrect or inaccurate entry information, or for any faulty or failed electronic data transmissions; (c) any unauthorized access to, or theft, destruction or alteration of entries or registrations at any point in the operation of this Sweepstakes; (d) any technical malfunction, failure, error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or communications line failure, regardless of cause, with regard to any equipment, systems, networks, lines, cable, satellites, servers, computers or providers utilized in any aspect of the operation of the Sweepstakes; (e) inaccessibility or unavailability of the Internet or the Sponsor’s web site or any combination thereof or for computer hardware or software malfunctions, failures or difficulties, or other errors or difficulties of any kind whether human, mechanical, electronic, computer, network, typographical, printing or otherwise relating to or in connection with the Sweepstakes, including, without limitation, errors or difficulties which may occur in connection with the administration of the Sweepstakes, the processing of Entries, social networking posts, or registrations, the announcement of the prizes, or in any other Sweepstakes-related materials; or (f) any injury or damage to participants or to any other person’s computer which may be related to or resulting from any attempt to participate in the Sweepstakes. If, for any reason, the Sweepstakes (or any part thereof) is not capable of running as planned for reasons which may include, without limitation, infection by computer virus, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes which may corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity or proper conduct of this Sweepstakes, then the Sponsor reserve the right at their sole discretion to cancel, terminate, modify or suspend the Sweepstakes in whole or in part. If terminated, the Sponsor will award the prizes from among all non-suspect, eligible Entries received for the Sweepstakes up to the time of such action.

RELEASES: All participants, as a condition of participation in this Sweepstakes, agree to release, hold harmless and indemnify the Sponsor, its offers, directors, accountants, attorneys and agents (“Released Parties”) from and against any and all liability, claims, damages, or actions of any kind whatsoever for injuries, damages, or losses to persons or property which may be sustained, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, in connection with (i) participation in any aspect of the Sweepstakes, (ii) the receipt, ownership or use of the prize awarded, including any travel associated with any prize, (iii) participant’s registration material on any related website, or (iv) any typographical or other error in these these Rules.

NO WARRANTIES: NEITHER SPONSOR NOR ANY OF THE RELEASED PARTIES HAVE MADE OR MAKE OR ARE RESPONSIBLE OR LIABLE FOR ANY WARRANTY, REPRESENTATION OR GUARANTEE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, RELATIVE TO THIS SWEEPSTAKES OR A PRIZE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ITS QUALITY OR FITNESS OR MERCHANTABILITY, AND ALL PRIZES ARE TENDERED TO ENTRANTS ON AN “AS IS” BASIS.  THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES REGARDING ANY PRIZE OR THE USE OF THE GIFT CARD WITH AMAZON.

RANDOM DRAWING: One (1) prize winner(s) will be randomly selected for the Sweepstakes to receive a $150 electronic Amazon gift card. All decisions on all matters pertaining to the Sweepstakes are final. Sponsor reserves the right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value.

WINNER NOTIFICATION: Random selection of the potential prize winner will occur during the first week that immediately follows the Sweepstakes Period from among all eligible entries received. Prize drawing will be conducted at Sponsor’s headquarters. The prize winner will be notified by e-mail or regular mail, in Sponsor’s discretion, within 30 days from the date of the winner selection.

The designated prize winner will have 14 days from notification to claim the prize and return all release and eligibility forms. Sponsor and its affiliates, subsidiaries, employees, agents, officers and directors, advertising and promotion agencies, and their respective officers, directors, employees and their respective agents, will not be liable for unsuccessful efforts to notify a winner.

The prize will be delivered via e-mail. No prize transfer, assignment or substitution by winner permitted. All federal, state and local taxes, fees and surcharges on prizes are the sole responsibility of the prize winner. If the prize winner declines the prize, fails to claim the prize, is unavailable for prize fulfillment, fails to abide by the these Rules, or is ineligible, Sponsor may select an alternate winner from all remaining eligible entries.

By entering this Sweepstakes, each entrant gives his/her express permission to be contacted by the Sponsor by telephone, e-mail and/or postal mail for Sweepstakes purposes.

The winner, by acceptance of Prize, grants to Sponsor, and each of its respective designees, the right to publicize the winner’s name, address (city and state of residence), photograph, voice, statements and/or other likeness and prize information for advertising, promotional, trade and/or any other purpose in any media or format now known or hereafter devised, throughout the world, in perpetuity, without limitation and without further compensation, consideration, permission or notification, unless prohibited by law.

Before being declared a winner, each selected entrant will be required to sign an confirmation and acceptance confirming compliance with the these Rules and acceptance of the prize as offered. The confirmation and acceptance must be returned within 7 business days of the notification date indicated on the documents, unless otherwise stated, or the selected entrant will be disqualified and the prize forfeited.

THIRD PARTY & SOCIAL MEDIA:  This Sweepstakes is in no way sponsored by, endorsed by, associated with, or administered by Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Whatsapp, Tumblr, Google, YouTube, WeChat, or WhatsApp (collectively “Social Media Sites”).  By entering this event, you agree to hold all Social Media Sites harmless for and from any potential claims you may have related to or arising out of this Sweepstakes.

MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS: Sponsor reserves the right at its sole discretion to cancel, terminate, modify or suspend the Sweepstakes.

Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, or delay in operation or transmission; communications line failure; theft or destruction of or unauthorized access to Sweepstakes entries or entry forms; or alteration of entries or entry forms. Sponsor reserves the right to correct clerical or typographical errors in promotional materials or any materials related to the Sweepstakes.

WINNER NAME: To obtain the name of the winner, send a request to [email protected]

CHOICE OF LAW AND JURISDICTION: This Sweepstakes is governed by the internal substantive laws of Nevada, without regard to its conflicts of law provisions.

Show Us What You #MadeWithMicro100

Are you proud of the parts you #MadeWithMicro100? Show us with a video of the parts you are making, the Micro 100 Tool used, and the story behind how that part came to be, for a chance to win a $1,000 Amazon gift card grand prize!

With the recent addition of the Micro 100 brand to the Harvey Performance Company family, we want to know how you have been utilizing its expansive tooling offering. Has Micro 100’s Micro-Quik system helped you save time and money? Do you have a favorite tool that gets the job done for you every time? Has Micro 100 tooling saved you from a jam? We want to know! Send us a video on Instagram and show us what you #MadeWithMicro100!

How to Participate

Using #MadeWithMicro100 and @micro_100, tag your video of the Micro 100 tools machining your parts on Instagram or Facebook. Remember, don’t share anything that could get you in trouble! Proprietary parts and trade secrets should not be on display.

Official Contest Rules

Contest Dates:

  • The contest will run between December 5, 2019 to January 17, 2020. Submit as many entries as you’d like! Entries that are submitted before or after the contest period will not be considered for the top prizes (But we’d still like to see them!)

The Important Stuff:

  1. Take a video of your Micro 100 tool in action, clear and visible.
  2. Share your video on social media using #MadeWithMicro100 and tagging @Micro_100.
  3. Detail the story behind the project (tool number(s), operation, running parameters, etc.)

Prizes

All submissions will be considered for the $1,000 Amazon gift card grand prize. Of these entries, the most impressive (10) will be put up to popular vote. All entries put up to vote will be featured on our new customer testimonial page on our website with their name, social media account, and video displayed for everybody to see.

We’ll pick our favorites, but the final say is up to you. Public voting will begin on January 21, 2020, and a winner will be announced on January 28, 2020.

The top five entries will be sent Micro 100’s Micro-Quik tool change system with a few of our quick change tools. The top three entries will be offered a spot as a “Featured Customer” on our “In The Loupe” blog!

The Fine Print:

  • Please ensure that you have permission from both your employer and customer to post a video.
  • All entries must be the original work of the person identified in the entry.
  • No purchase necessary to enter or win. A purchase will not increase your chances of winning.
  • On January 28, 2020, the top 5 winners will be announced to the public. The Top 5 selected winners will receive a prize. The odds of being selected depend on the number of entries received. If a potential winner cannot be contacted within five (5) days after the date of first attempt, an alternative winner may be selected.
  • The potential winners will be notified via social media. Each potential winner must complete a release form granting Micro 100 full permission to publish the winner’s submitted video. If a potential winner cannot be contacted, or fails to submit the release form, the potential winner forfeits prize. Potential winners must continue to comply with all terms and conditions of these official contest rules, and winning is contingent upon fulfilling all requirements.
  • Participation in the contest constitutes entrants’ full and unconditional agreement to and acceptance of these official rules and decisions. Winning a prize is contingent upon being compliant with these official rules and fulfilling all other requirements.
  • The Micro 100 Video Contest is open to residents in US and Canada who are at least 18 years old at the time of entry.

Selecting the Right Chamfer Cutter Tip Geometry

A chamfer cutter, or a chamfer mill, can be found at any machine shop, assembly floor, or hobbyist’s garage. These cutters are simple tools that are used for chamfering or beveling any part in a wide variety of materials. There are many reasons to chamfer a part, ranging from fluid flow and safety, to part aesthetics.

Due to the diversity of needs, tooling manufacturers offer many different angles and sizes of chamfer cutters, and as well as different types of chamfer cutter tip geometries. Harvey Tool, for instance, offers 21 different angles per side, ranging from 15° to 80°, flute counts of 2 to 6, and shank diameters starting at 1/8” up to 1 inch.

After finding a tool with the exact angle they’re looking for, a customer may have to choose a certain chamfer cutter tip that would best suit their operation. Common types of chamfer cutter tips include pointed, flat end, and end cutting. The following three types of chamfer cutter tip styles, offered by Harvey Tool, each serve a unique purpose.

Harvey Tool Chamfer Cutters

Pointed and Flat End Chamfer Cutters

Three Types of Harvey Tool Chamfer Cutters

Type I: Pointed

This style of chamfer cutter is the only Harvey Tool option that comes to a sharp point. The pointed tip allows the cutter to perform in smaller grooves, slots, and holes, relative to the other two types. This style also allows for easier programming and touch-offs, since the point can be easily located. It’s due to its tip that this version of the cutter has the longest length of cut (with the tool coming to a finished point), compared to the flat end of the other types of chamfer cutters. With only a 2 flute option, this is the most straightforward version of a chamfer cutter offered by Harvey Tool.

Type I Chamfer Cutter overview

Type II: Flat End, Non-End Cutting

Type II chamfer cutters are very similar to the type I style, but feature an end that’s ground down to a flat, non-cutting tip. This flat “tip” removes the pointed part of the chamfer, which is the weakest part of the tool. Due to this change in tool geometry, this tool is given an additional measurement for how much longer the tool would be if it came to a point. This measurement is known as “distance to theoretical sharp corner,” which helps with the programming of the tool. The advantage of the flat end of the cutter now allows for multiple flutes to exist on the tapered profile of the chamfer cutter. With more flutes, this chamfer has improved tool life and finish. The flat, non-end cutting tip flat does limit its use in narrow slots, but another advantage is a lower profile angle with better angular velocity at the tip.

Type II Chamfer Cutter overview

Type III: Flat End, End Cutting

Type III chamfer cutters are an improved and more advanced version of the type II style. The type III boasts a flat end tip with 2 flutes meeting at the center, creating a center cutting-capable version of the type II cutter. The center cutting geometry of this cutter makes it possible to cut with its flat tip. This cutting allows the chamfer cutter to lightly cut into the top of a part to the bottom of it, rather than leave material behind when cutting a chamfer. There are many situations where blending of a tapered wall and floor is needed, and this is where these chamfer cutters shine. The tip diameter is also held to a tight tolerance, which significantly helps with programing it.

Type III Chamfer Cutter overview

In conclusion, there could be many suitable cutters for a single job, and there are many questions you must ask prior to picking your ideal tool. Choosing the right angle comes down to making sure that the angle on the chamfer cutter matches the angle on the part. One needs to be cautious of how the angles are called out, as well. Is the angle an “included angle” or “angle per side?” Is the angle called off of the vertical or horizontal? Next, the larger the shank diameter, the stronger the chamfer and the longer the length of cut, but now, interference with walls or fixtures need to be considered. Flute count comes down to material and finish. Softer materials tend to want less flutes for better chip evacuation, while more flutes will help with finish. After addressing each of these considerations, the correct style of chamfer for your job should be abundantly clear.

How Boring Bar Geometries Impact Cutting Operations

Boring is a turning operation that allows a machinist to make a pre-existing hole bigger through multiple iterations of internal boring. It has a number of advantages over traditional hole finishing methods:

  • The ability to cost-effectively produce a hole outside standard drill sizes
  • The creation of more precise holes, and therefore tighter tolerances
  • A greater finish quality
  • The opportunity to create multiple dimensions within the bore itself
boring bar dimension explanation

Solid carbide boring bars, such as those offered by Micro 100,  have a few standard dimensions that give the tool basic functionality in removing material from an internal bore. These include:

Minimum Bore Diameter (D1): The minimum diameter of a hole for the cutting end of the tool to completely fit inside without making contact at opposing sides

Maximum Bore Depth (L2): Maximum depth that the tool can reach inside a hole without contact from the shank portion

Shank Diameter (D2): Diameter of the portion of the tool in contact with the tool holder

Overall Length (L1): Total length of the tool

Centerline Offset (F): The distance between a tool’s tip and the shank’s centerline axis

Micro100 Continues to Set the Standard for Boring Bars, Shop Today.

Tool Selection

In order to minimize tool deflection and therefore risk of tool failure, it is important to choose a tool with a max bore depth that is only slightly larger than the length it is intended to cut. It is also beneficial to maximize the boring bar and shank diameter as this will increase the rigidity of the tool. This must be balanced with leaving enough room for chips to evacuate. This balance ultimately comes down to the material being bored. A harder material with a lower feed rate and depths of cut may not need as much space for chips to evacuate, but may require a larger and more rigid tool. Conversely, a softer material with more aggressive running parameters will need more room for chip evacuation, but may not require as rigid of a tool.

Geometries

In addition, they have a number of different geometric features in order to adequately handle the three types of forces acting upon the tool during this machining process. During a standard boring operation, the greatest of these forces is tangential, followed by feed (sometimes called axial), and finally radial. Tangential force acts perpendicular to the rake surface and pushes the tool away from the centerline. Feed force does not cause deflection, but pushes back on the tool and acts parallel to the centerline. Radial force pushes the tool towards the center of the bore.

Defining the Geometric Features of a Boring Bar:

Nose Radius: the roundness of a tool’s cutting point

Side Clearance (Radial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the nose relative to the axis parallel to the centerline of the tool

End Clearance (Axial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the axis running perpendicular to the centerline of the tool

Side Rake Angle: The angle measuring the sideways tilt of the side face of the tool

Back Rake Angle: The angle measuring the degree to which the back face is tilted in relation to the centerline of the workpiece

Side Relief Angle: The angle measuring how far the bottom face is tilted away from the workpiece

End Relief Angle: The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the line running perpendicular to the center axis of the tool

boring bar geometric features

Effects of Geometric Features on Cutting Operations:

Nose Radius: A large nose radius makes more contact with the workpiece, extending the life of the tool and the cutting edge as well as leaving a better finish. However, too large of a radius will lead to chatter as the tool is more exposed to tangential and radial cutting forces.

Another way this feature affects the cutting action is in determining how much of the cutting edge is struck by tangential force. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent on the feed and depth of cut. Different combinations of depth of cuts and nose angles will result in either shorter or longer lengths of the cutting edge being exposed to the tangential force. The overall effect being the degree of edge wear. If only a small portion of the cutting edge is exposed to a large force it would be worn down faster than if a longer portion of the edge is succumb to the same force. This phenomenon also occurs with the increase and decrease of the end cutting edge angle.

End Cutting Edge Angle: The main purpose of the end cutting angle is for clearance when cutting in the positive Z direction (moving into the hole). This clearance allows the nose radius to be the main point of contact between the tool and the workpiece. Increasing the end cutting edge angle in the positive direction decreases the strength of the tip, but also decreases feed force. This is another situation where balance of tip strength and cutting force reduction must be found. It is also important to note that the angle may need to be changed depending on the type of boring one is performing.

Side Rake Angle: The nose angle is one geometric dimension that determines how much of the cutting edge is hit by tangential force but the side rake angle determines how much that force is redistributed into radial force. A positive rake angle means a lower tangential cutting force as allows for a greater amount of shearing action. However, this angle cannot be too great as it compromises cutting edge integrity by leaving less material for the nose angle and side relief angle.

Back Rake Angle: Sometimes called the top rake angle, the back rake angle for solid carbide boring bars is ground to help control the flow of chips cut on the end portion of the tool. This feature cannot have too sharp of a positive angle as it decreases the tools strength.

Side and End Relief Angles: Like the end cutting edge angle, the main purpose of the side and end relief angles are to provide clearance so that the tools non-cutting portion doesn’t rub against the workpiece. If the angles are too small then there is a risk of abrasion between the tool and the workpiece. This friction leads to increased tool wear, vibration and poor surface finish. The angle measurements will generally be between 0° and 20°.

Boring Bar Geometries Summarized

Boring bars have a few overall dimensions that allow for the boring of a hole without running the tool holder into the workpiece, or breaking the tool instantly upon contact. Solid carbide boring bars have a variety of angles that are combined differently to distribute the 3 types of cutting forces in order to take full advantage of the tool. Maximizing tool performance requires the combination of choosing the right tool along with the appropriate feed rate, depth of cut and RPM. These factors are dependent on the size of the hole, amount of material that needs to be removed, and mechanical properties of the workpiece.

Tool Deflection & Its Remedies

Every machinist must be aware of tool deflection, as too much deflection can lead to catastrophic failure in the tool or workpiece. Deflection is the displacement of an object under a load causing curvature and/or fracture.

For Example: When looking at a diving board at rest without the pressure of a person’s weight upon it, the board is straight. But as the diver progresses down further to the end of the board, it bends further. Deflection in tooling can be thought of in a similar way.

Deflection Can Result In:

  • Shortened tool life and/or tool breakage
  • Subpar surface finish
  • Part dimensional inaccuracies

Tool Deflection Remedies

Minimize Overhang

Overhang refers to the distance a tool is sticking out of the tool holder. Simply, as overhang increases, the tool’s likelihood of deflection increases. The larger distance a tool hangs out of the holder, the less shank there is to grip, and depending on the shank length, this could lead to harmonics in the tool that can cause fracture. Simply put, For optimal working conditions, minimize overhang by chucking the tool as much as possible.

extended reach tool
Image Source: @NuevaPrecision

Long Flute vs. Long Reach

Another way to minimize deflection is having a full grasp on the differences between a long flute and a long reach tool. The reason for such a difference in rigidity between the two is the core diameter of the tool. The more material, the more rigid the tool; the shorter the length of flute, the more rigid the tool and the longer the tool life. While each tooling option has its benefits and necessary uses, using the right option for an operation is important.

The below charts illustrate the relationship between force on the tip and length of flute showing how much the tool will deflect if only the tip is engaged while cutting. One of the key ways to get the longest life out of your tool is by increasing rigidity by selecting the smallest reach and length of cut on the largest diameter tool.

tool deflection

tool deflection graph

Click Here to Learn More About Proper Tool Holding and Runout

When to Opt for a Long Reach Tool

Reached tools are typically used to remove material where there is a gap that the shank would not fit in, but a noncutting extension of the cutter diameter would. This length of reach behind the cutting edge is also slightly reduced from the cutter diameter to prevent heeling (rubbing of noncutting surface against the part). Reached tools are one of the best tools to add to a tool crib because of their versatility and tool life.

long reach end mill
Long Reach Tool: Variable Helix End Mills for Exotic Alloys – Ball – Long Reach, Stub Flute

When to Opt for a Long Flute Tool

Long Flute tools have longer lengths of cut and are typically used for either maintaining a seamless wall on the side of a part, or within a slot for finishing applications. The core diameter is the same size throughout the cutting length, leading to more potential for deflection within a part. This possibly can lead to a tapered edge if too little of the cutting edge is engaged with a high feed rate. When cutting in deep slots, these tools are very effective. When using HEM, they are also very beneficial due to their chip evacuation capabilities that reached tools do not have.

long flute tool
Long Flute Tool: Miniature End Mills – Square Long Flute

Deflection & Tool Core Strength

Diameter is an important factor when calculating deflection. Machinists oftentimes use the cutter diameter in the calculation of long flute tools, when in actuality the core diameter (shown below) is the necessary dimension. This is because the fluted portion of a tool has an absence of material in the flute valleys. For a reached tool, the core diameter would be used in the calculation until its reached portion, at which point it transitions to the neck diameter. When changing these values, it can lower deflection to a point where it is not noticeable for the reached tool but could affect critical dimensions in a long flute tool.

core diameter vs neck diameter

Deflection Summarized

Tool deflection can cause damage to your tool and scrap your part if not properly accounted for prior to beginning a job. Be sure to minimize the distance from the tool holder to the tip of the tool to keep deflection to a minimum. For more information on ways to reduce tool deflection in your machining, view Diving into Depth of Cut.

Contouring Considerations

What is Contouring?

Contouring a part means creating a fine finish on an irregular or uneven surface. Dissimilar to finishing a flat or even part, cnc contouring involves the finishing of a rounded, curved, or otherwise uniquely shaped part.

CNC Contouring & 5-Axis Machining

5-axis machines are particularly suitable for contouring applications. Because contouring involves the finishing of an intricate or unique part, the multiple axes of movement in play with 5-axis Machining allow for the tool to access tough-to-reach areas, as well as follow intricate tool paths.

Recent  Advances

Advanced CAM software can now write the G-Code (the step-by-step program needed to create a finished part) for a machinists application, which has drastically simplified contouring applications. Simply, rather than spend several hours writing the code for an application, the software now handles this step. Despite these advances, most young machinists are still required to write their own G-Codes early on in their careers to gain valuable familiarity with the machines and their abilities. CAM software, for many, is a luxury earned with time.

Benefits of Advanced CAM Software

Increased Time Savings
Because contouring requires very specific tooling movements and rapidly changing cutting parameters, ridding machinists of the burden of writing their own complex code can save valuable prep time and reduce machining downtime.

Reduced Cycle Times
Generated G-Codes can cut several minutes off of a cycle time by removing redundancies within the application. Rather than contouring an area of the part that does not require it, or has been machined already, the CAM Software locates the very specific areas that require machining time and attention to maximize efficiency.

Improved Consistency
CAM Programs that are packaged with CAD Software such as SolidWorks are typically the best in terms of consistency and ability to handle complex designs. While the CAD Software helps a machinist generate the part, the CAM Program tells a machine how to make it.

Proper Tips

Utilize Proper Cut Depths

Prior to running a contouring operation, an initial roughing cut is taken to remove material in steps on the Z-axis so to leave a limited amount of material for the final contouring pass. In this step, it’s pivotal to leave the right amount of material for contouring — too much material for the contouring pass can result in poor surface finish or a damaged part or tool, while too little material can lead to prolonged cycle time, decreased productivity and a sub par end result.

CNC Contouring planes

The contouring application should remove from .010″ to 25% of the tool’s cutter diameter. During contouring, it’s possible for the feeds to decrease while speeds increases, leading to a much smoother finish. It is also important to keep in mind that throughout the finishing cut, the amount of engagement between the tool’s cutting edge and the part will vary regularly – even within a single pass.

Use Best Suited Tooling

Ideal tool selection for contouring operations begins by choosing the proper profile of the tool. A large radius or ball profile is very often used for this operation because it does not leave as much evidence of a tool path. Rather, they effectively smooth the material along the face of the part. Undercutting End Mills, also known as lollipop cutters, have spherical ball profiles that make them excellent choices for contouring applications. Harvey Tool’s 300° Reduced Shank Undercutting End Mill, for example, features a high flute count to benefit part finish for light cut depths, while maintaining the ability to reach tough areas of the front or back side of a part.

CNC Contouring ball end mill

Fact-Check G-Code

While advanced CAM Software will create the G-Code for an application, saving a machinist valuable time and money, accuracy of this code is still vitally important to the overall outcome of the final product. Machinists must look for issues such as wrong tool call out, rapids that come too close to the material, or even offsets that need correcting. Failure to look G-Code over prior to beginning machining can result in catastrophic machine failure and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of damage.

Inserting an M01 – or a notation to the machine in the G-Code to stop and await machinist approval before moving on to the next step – can help a machinist to ensure that everything is approved with a next phase of an operation, or if any redundancy is set to occur, prior to continuation.

Contouring Summarized

CNC contouring is most often used in 5-axis machines as a finishing operation for uniquely shaped or intricate parts. After an initial roughing pass, the contouring operation – done most often with Undercutting End Mills or Ball End Mills, removes anywhere from .010″ to 25% of the cutter diameter in material from the part to ensure proper part specifications are met and a fine finish is achieved. During contouring, cut only at recommended depths, ensure that G-Code is correct, and use tooling best suited for this operation.

5 Ways Your Shop is Inefficient

5 Ways Your Shop is Inefficient

In today’s ultracompetitive industry, every machine shop seeks even the slightest edge to gain an advantage on their competition and boost their bottom line. However, what many machinists don’t know is that improving their shop’s efficiency might be easier than they thought. The following five ways your shop is inefficient will provide a clear starting point of where to look for machinists desperate to earn a competitive edge.

Premature Tool Decay / Tool Failure

If you’re finding that your tools are failing or breaking at an unacceptable rate, don’t mistake it for commonplace. It doesn’t have to be. Prolonging the life of your tooling starts with finding not just the right tool, but the best one; as well as running it in a way to get its optimal performance. Many machinists mistake premature tool failure with running parameters that were too aggressive. In fact, not pushing the tool to its full potential can actually cause it to decay at an accelerated rate in certain situations.

Tool failure can occur in many different ways: Abrasive Wear, Chipping, Thermal Cracking or Tool Fracture, just to name a few. Understanding each type and its causes can help you to quickly boost your shop’s efficiency by minimizing downtime and saving on replacement tool costs.

tool wear Shop Inefficient

An example of a tool with excessive wear

For more information on tool wear, view Avoiding 4 Major Types of Tool Wear.

Subpar Part Finish

Your shop spends money to employ machinists, run machines, and buy cutting tools. Get your money’s worth, lead the industry, and ensure that you’re providing your customers with the highest quality product. Not only will this help to keep your buyer-seller relationship strong, but it will allow you the flexibility to increase your prices in the future, and will attract prospective customers.

Many factors influence part finish, including the material and its hardness, the speeds and feeds you’re running your tool at, tool deflection, and the tool-to-workpiece orientation.

For more information on ways to improve your part finish, view our Part Finish Reference Guide.

Inefficient Coolant Usage

One often forgotten expense of a machine shop is coolant – and it can be pricey. A 55-gallon drum of coolant can run more than $1,500. What’s worse is that coolant is often applied in excess of what’s required for the job. In fact, some machines even feature a Minimum Quantity Lubricant (MQL) functionality, which applies coolant as an extremely fine mist or aerosol, providing just enough coolant to perform a given operation effectively. While drowning a workpiece in coolant, known as a “Flood Coolant,” is sometimes needed, it is oftentimes utilized on jobs that would suffice with much less.

For more information about coolants and which method of application might be best for your job, view What You Need to Know About Coolant for CNC Machining.

Not Taking Advantage of Tool Versatility

Did you know that several CNC cutting tools can perform multiple operations? For example, a Chamfer Mill can chamfer, bevel, deburr, and countersink. Some Chamfer Mills can even be used as a Spotting Drill. Of course, the complexity of the job will dictate your ability to reap the benefits of a tool’s versatility. For instance, a Spotting Drill is obviously the best option for spotting a hole. If performing a simple operation, though, don’t go out of your way to buy additional tooling when what’s already in your carousel can handle it.

chamfer mills

To learn more about versatile tools that can perform multiple applications, check out Multi-Functional Tools Every Shop Should Have.

High Machine Downtime Makes Your Shop Inefficient

What use is a machine that’s not running beside making your shop inefficient? Minimizing machine downtime is a key way to ensure that your shop is reaching its efficiency pinnacle. This can be accomplished a variety of ways, including keeping like-parts together. This allows for a simple swap-in, swap-out of material to be machined by the same cutting tool. This saves valuable time swapping out tooling, and lets your machine to do its job for more time per workday. Production planning is a key factor to running an efficient machine shop.

The Advances of Multiaxis Machining

CNC Machine Growth

As the manufacturing industry has developed, so too have the capabilities of machining centers. CNC Machines are constantly being improved and optimized to better handle the requirements of new applications. Perhaps the most important way these machines have improved over time is in the multiple axes of direction they can move, as well as orientation. For instance, a traditional 3-axis machine allows for movement and cutting in three directions, while a 2.5-axis machine can move in three directions but only cut in two. The possible number of axes for a multiaxis machine varies from 4 to 9, depending on the situation. This is assuming that no additional sub-systems are installed to the setup that would provide additional movement. The configuration of a multiaxis machine is dependent on the customer’s operation and the machine manufacturer.

Multiaxis Machining

With this continuous innovation has come the popularity of multiaxis machines – or CNC machines that can perform more than three axes of movement (greater than just the three linear axes X, Y, and Z). Additional axes usually include three rotary axes, as well as movement abilities of the table holding the part or spindle in place. Machines today can move up to 9 axes of direction.

https://www.instagram.com/p/BdssKBsg0Sa/

Multiaxis machines provide several major improvements over CNC machines that only support 3 axes of movement. These benefits include:

  • Increasing part accuracy/consistency by decreasing the number of manual adjustments that need to be made.
  • Reducing the amount of human labor needed as there are fewer manual operations to perform.
  • Improving surface finish as the tool can be moved tangentially across the part surface.
  • Allowing for highly complex parts to be made in a single setup, saving time and cost.

9-Axis Machine Centers

The basic 9-axis naming convention consists of three sets of three axes.

multiaxis machining

Set One

The first set is the X, Y, and Z linear axes, where the Z axis is in line with the machine’s spindle, and the X and Y axes are parallel to the surface of the table. This is based on a vertical machining center. For a horizontal machining center, the Z axis would be aligned with the spindle.

Set Two

The second set of axes is the A, B, and C rotary axes, which rotate around the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. These axes allow for the spindle to be oriented at different angles and in different positions, which enables tools to create more features, thereby decreasing the number of tool changes and maximizing efficiency.

Set Three

The third set of axes is the U, V, and W axes, which are secondary linear axes that are parallel to the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. While these axes are parallel to the X, Y, and Z axes, they are managed by separate commands. The U axis is common in a lathe machine. This axis allows the cutting tool to move perpendicular to the machine’s spindle, enabling the machined diameter to be adjusted during the machining process.

The Growing Industry of Multiaxis Machining

In summary, as the manufacturing industry has grown, so too have the abilities of CNC Machines. Today, tooling can move across nine different axes, allowing for the machining of more intricate, precise, and delicate parts. Additionally, this development has worked to improve shop efficiency by minimizing manual labor and creating a more perfect final product.

What You Need to Know About Coolant for CNC Machining

Coolant in purpose is widely understood – it’s used to temper high temperatures common during machining, and aid in chip evacuation. However, there are several types and styles, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Knowing which cnc coolant – or if any – is appropriate for your job can help to boost your shop’s profitability, capability, and overall machining performance.

Coolant or Lubricant Purpose

Coolant and lubricant are terms used interchangeably, though not all coolants are lubricants. Compressed air, for example, has no lubricating purpose but works only as a cooling option. Direct coolants – those which make physical contact with a part – can be compressed air, water, oil, synthetics, or semi-synthetics. When directed to the cutting action of a tool, these can help to fend off high temperatures that could lead to melting, warping, discoloration, or tool failure. Additionally, coolant can help evacuate chips from a part, preventing chip recutting and aiding in part finish.

Coolant can be expensive, however, and wasteful if not necessary. Understanding the amount of coolant needed for your job can help your shop’s efficiency.

Click Here to Shop Harvey Tool’s Fully Stocked Offering of Deep Hole Coolant Through Drills

Types of Coolant Delivery

CNC coolant is delivered in several different forms – both in properties and pressure. The most common forms include air, mist, flood coolant, high pressure, and Minimum Quantity Lubricant (MQL). Choosing the wrong pressure can lead to part or tool damage, whereas choosing the wrong amount can lead to exhausted shop resources.

Air: Cools and clears chips, but has no lubricity purpose. Air coolant does not cool as efficiently as water or oil-based coolants. For more sensitive materials, air coolant is often preferred over types that come in direct contact with the part. This is true with many plastics, where thermal shock – or rapid expansion and contraction of a part – can occur if direct coolant is applied.

Mist: This type of low pressure coolant is sufficient for instances where chip evacuation and heat are not major concerns. Because the pressure applied is not great in a mist, the part and tool do not undergo additional stresses.

Flood: This low pressure method creates lubricity and flushes chips from a part to avoid chip recutting, a common and tool damaging occurrence.

High Pressure: Similar to flood coolant, but delivered in greater than 1,000 psi. This is a great option for chip removal and evacuation, as it blasts the chips away from the part. While this method will effectively cool a part immediately, the pressure can be high enough to break miniature diameter tooling. This method is used often in deep pocket or drilling operations, and can be delivered via coolant through tooling, or coolant grooves built into the tool itself. Harvey Tool offers Coolant Through Drills, while Titan USA proudly offers Coolant-Fed ThreadMills

Minimum Quantity Lubricant (MQL): Every machine shop focuses on how to gain a competitive advantage – to spend less, make more, and boost shop efficiency. That’s why many shops are opting for MQL, along with its obvious environmental benefits. Using only the necessary amount of coolant will dramatically reduce costs and wasted material. This type of lubricant is applied as an aerosol, or an extremely fine mist, to provide just enough coolant to perform a given operation effectively.

To see all of these coolant styles in action, check out the video below from our partners at CimQuest.

In Conclusion

CNC coolant is all-too-often overlooked as a major component of a machining operation. The type of coolant or lubricant, and the pressure at which it’s applied, is vital to both machining success and optimum shop efficiency. Coolant can be applied as compressed air, mist, in a flooding property, or as high pressure. Certain machines also are MQL able, meaning they can effectively restrict the amount of coolant being applied to the very amount necessary to avoid being wasteful.

3 Steps to Shutting up Tool Chatter

Cutting tools undergo a great deal of force during the machining process, which cause vibrations – also known as chatter or harmonics. Avoiding these vibrations entirely is not possible, though minimizing them is pivotal for machining success. Vibrations become damaging when proper machining steps are not followed. This leads to strong, part-ruining chatter. In these situations, parts have what is known as “chatter marks,” or clear vibration marks along the surface of a part. Tools can experience an increased rate of wear due to excess vibration.

Tool Chatter can be kept at bay by following three simple, yet often overlooked steps:

Shut Up Tool Chatter With Harvey Tool’s Material Specific Tooling

Select the Right Tool for Your Job

It seems elementary, but selecting the best tool for your application can be confusing. With so many different geometric styles for tooling – overall length, length of cut, reach, number of flutes – it can sometimes be difficult to narrow down one specific tool for your job. Oftentimes, machinists opt for general purpose tooling that can perform a variety of operations, overlooking the option that’s optimized for one material and job.

Opting for Material Specific Tooling is helpful, as each material has different needs. For example, steels are machined differently than aluminum materials. Everything from the chip size, to chip evacuation, is different. Variable Helix or Variable Pitch designs help to minimize chatter by reducing harmonics, which are caused by the cutting edge having repeated contact with the workpiece. In order to reduce harmonics, the time intervals between flute contact with the workpiece are varied.

Overall length is another important factor to consider when deciding on a tool for your job. The more overhang, or length the tool hangs from the spindle, the less secure the spindle-to-tool connection is, and the more vibration. Ensuring that your tool is only as long as needed for your operation is important to minimizing chatter and harmonics. If machining deep within a part, opt for reached tooling or an extended reach tool holder to help solidify the connection.

helical reduced neck tool

Ensure a Secure Connection

When it comes to secure tool holding approaches, both the tool shank and the collet are important. A loose tool, unsurprisingly, has more ability to move, or vibrate, during machining. With this in mind, Helical offers Shank Configurations to help the connection including the ToughGRIP Shank, which replaces a smooth, mirror-like surface with a rougher, coarser one for increased friction. Helical is also a licensee of the HAIMER Safe-Lock™, added grooves on the shank of a tool that work opposite of the spindle rotation, securely fastening the tool in place.

Machinists must also know the different types of collets available to them to identify if a better solution might be necessary. For example, Hydraulic Tool Holders or Shrink Fit Tool Holders promote a stronger connection than a Mechanical Spindle Tightening method.

For more information, see Key Tool Holding Considerations

Choose a Chatter Minimizing Strategy

How a tool is run can mean the difference between stellar job results and a ruined part. This includes both the parameters a tool is run at, as well as the direction by which it rotates – either a Conventional Milling or a Climb Milling technique.

Conventional Milling

In this method, the chip width starts from zero and increases gradually, causing more heat to diffuse into the workpiece. This can lead to work hardening, creating more headaches for a machinist.

tool chatter and conventional milling

Climb Milling

Most modern machine shops will use a climb milling technique, or when the chip width starts at its maximum and decreases during the cut. Climb Milling will offer a more consistent cut than traditional methods, and puts less stress on the tool. Think of it like weight lifting – doing the heavy lifting will be easiest at the beginning of your workout. Similarly, a cut in which the thickest chip is removed first helps the tool maintain its strength. Because the chip cutting process is more swift, vibrations are minimized.

decrease tool chatter with climb milling

For more information, see Climb Milling Vs. Conventional Milling

In Conclusion

Vibrations are unavoidable during the machining process, but minimizing them can mean the difference between successful machining and scrapped parts. Following three simple rules can help to keep your chatter and harmonics under control, including: Selecting the right tool, ensuring a secure machine-tool connection, and using it in a climb milling strategy. Both Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions have tools that can help, including shank modifications and Variable Helix or Variable Pitch end mills.