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Show Us What You #MadeWithMicro100

Are you proud of the parts you #MadeWithMicro100? Show us with a video of the parts you are making, the Micro 100 Tool used, and the story behind how that part came to be, for a chance to win a $1,000 grand prize!

With the recent addition of the Micro 100 brand to the Harvey Performance Company family, we want to know how you have been utilizing its expansive tooling offering. Has Micro 100’s Micro-Quik™ system helped you save time and money? Do you have a favorite tool that gets the job done for you every time? Has Micro 100 tooling saved you from a jam? We want to know! Send us a video on Instagram and show us what you #MadeWithMicro100!

How to Participate

Using #MadeWithMicro100 and @micro_100, tag your video of the Micro 100 tools machining your parts on Instagram or Facebook. Remember, don’t share anything that could get you in trouble! Proprietary parts and trade secrets should not be on display.

Official Contest Rules

Contest Dates:

  • The contest will run between December 5, 2019 to January 2, 2020. Submit as many entries as you’d like! Entries that are submitted before or after the contest period will not be considered for the top prizes (But we’d still like to see them!)

The Important Stuff:

  1. Take a video of your Micro 100 tool in action, clear and visible.
  2. Share your video on social media using #MadeWithMicro100 and tagging @Micro_100.
  3. Detail the story behind the project (tool number(s), operation, running parameters, etc.)

Prizes

All submissions will be considered for the $1,000 grand prize. Of these entries, the most impressive (10) will be put up to popular vote. All entries put up to vote will be featured on our new customer testimonial page on our website with their name, social media account, and video displayed for everybody to see.

We’ll pick our favorites, but the final say is up to you. Public voting will begin on January 6, 2020, and a winner will be announced on January 13, 2020.

The top five entries will be sent Micro 100’s Micro-Quik™ tool change system with a few of our quick change tools. The top three entries will be offered a spot as a “Featured Customer” on our “In The Loupe” blog!

The Fine Print:

  • Please ensure that you have permission from both your employer and customer to post a video.
  • All entries must be the original work of the person identified in the entry.
  • No purchase necessary to enter or win. A purchase will not increase your chances of winning.
  • On January 13, 2020, the top 5 winners will be announced to the public. The Top 5 selected winners will receive a prize. The odds of being selected depend on the number of entries received. If a potential winner cannot be contacted within five (5) days after the date of first attempt, an alternative winner may be selected.
  • The potential winners will be notified via social media. Each potential winner must complete a release form granting Micro 100 full permission to publish the winner’s submitted video. If a potential winner cannot be contacted, or fails to submit the release form, the potential winner forfeits prize. Potential winners must continue to comply with all terms and conditions of these official contest rules, and winning is contingent upon fulfilling all requirements.
  • Participation in the contest constitutes entrants’ full and unconditional agreement to and acceptance of these official rules and decisions. Winning a prize is contingent upon being compliant with these official rules and fulfilling all other requirements.
  • The Micro 100 Video Contest is open to residents in US and Canada who are at least 18 years old at the time of entry.

Selecting the Right Chamfer Cutter Tip Geometry

A chamfer cutter, or a chamfer mill, can be found at any machine shop, assembly floor, or hobbyist’s garage. These cutters are simple tools that are used for chamfering or beveling any part in a wide variety of materials. There are many reasons to chamfer a part, ranging from fluid flow and safety, to part aesthetics.

Due to the diversity of needs, tooling manufacturers offer many different angles and sizes of chamfer cutters, and as well as different types of chamfer cutter tip geometries. Harvey Tool, for instance, offers 21 different angles per side, ranging from 15° to 80°, flute counts of 2 to 6, and shank diameters starting at 1/8” up to 1 inch.

After finding a tool with the exact angle they’re looking for, a customer may have to choose a certain chamfer cutter tip that would best suit their operation. Common types of chamfer cutter tips include pointed, flat end, and end cutting. The following three types of chamfer cutter tip styles, offered by Harvey Tool, each serve a unique purpose.

Three Types of Harvey Tool Chamfer Cutters

Type I: Pointed

This style of chamfer cutter is the only Harvey Tool option that comes to a sharp point. The pointed tip allows the cutter to perform in smaller grooves, slots, and holes, relative to the other two types. This style also allows for easier programming and touch-offs, since the point can be easily located. It’s due to its tip that this version of the cutter has the longest length of cut (with the tool coming to a finished point), compared to the flat end of the other types of chamfer cutters. With only a 2 flute option, this is the most straightforward version of a chamfer cutter offered by Harvey Tool.

Type II: Flat End, Non-End Cutting

Type II chamfer cutters are very similar to the type I style, but feature an end that’s ground down to a flat, non-cutting tip. This flat “tip” removes the pointed part of the chamfer, which is the weakest part of the tool. Due to this change in tool geometry, this tool is given an additional measurement for how much longer the tool would be if it came to a point. This measurement is known as “distance to theoretical sharp corner,” which helps with the programming of the tool. The advantage of the flat end of the cutter now allows for multiple flutes to exist on the tapered profile of the chamfer cutter. With more flutes, this chamfer has improved tool life and finish. The flat, non-end cutting tip flat does limit its use in narrow slots, but another advantage is a lower profile angle with better angular velocity at the tip.

Type III: Flat End, End Cutting

Type III chamfer cutters are an improved and more advanced version of the type II style. The type III boasts a flat end tip with 2 flutes meeting at the center, creating a center cutting-capable version of the type II cutter. The center cutting geometry of this cutter makes it possible to cut with its flat tip. This cutting allows the chamfer cutter to lightly cut into the top of a part to the bottom of it, rather than leave material behind when cutting a chamfer. There are many situations where blending of a tapered wall and floor is needed, and this is where these chamfer cutters shine. The tip diameter is also held to a tight tolerance, which significantly helps with programing it.

In conclusion, there could be many suitable cutters for a single job, and there are many questions you must ask prior to picking your ideal tool. Choosing the right angle comes down to making sure that the angle on the chamfer cutter matches the angle on the part. One needs to be cautious of how the angles are called out, as well. Is the angle an “included angle” or “angle per side?” Is the angle called off of the vertical or horizontal? Next, the larger the shank diameter, the stronger the chamfer and the longer the length of cut, but now, interference with walls or fixtures need to be considered. Flute count comes down to material and finish. Softer materials tend to want less flutes for better chip evacuation, while more flutes will help with finish. After addressing each of these considerations, the correct style of chamfer for your job should be abundantly clear.

How to Select a Spindle

When trying to develop efficient processes, many machinists and programmers turn to tool selection first. It is true that tooling can often make a big difference in machining time, and speeds and feeds, but did you know that your machine’s spindle can have an equally impactful effect? The legs of any CNC machine, spindles are comprised of a motor, a taper for holding tools, and a shaft that will hold all of the components together. Often powered by electricity, spindles rotate on an axis which receives its input from the machine’s CNC controller.

Why is Choosing the Right Spindle Important?

Choosing the right spindle to machine your workpiece with is of very high importance to a successful production run. As tooling options continue to grow, it is important to know what tooling your spindle can utilize. Large diameter tools such as large end mills or face mills typically require slower spindle speeds and take deeper cuts to remove vast amounts of material. These applications require supreme machine rigidity and require a spindle with high torque.

Contrastingly, smaller diameter tools will need a higher-speed spindle. Faster speeds and feeds deliver better surface finishes and are used in a variety of applications. A good rule of thumb is that an end mill that is a half inch or smaller will run well with lower torque.

Types of CNC Spindles

After finding out what you should look for in a spindle, it is time to learn about your different options. Spindles typically vary by the type, style of the taper, or its size. The taper is the conical portion of the tool holder that fits inside of the opening of the spindle. Every spindle is designed to mate with a certain taper style and size.

CAT and BT Holders

This is the most widely utilized holder for milling in the United States. Referred to as “V-flange holders,” both of these styles need a retention knob or pull stud to be secured within the machine spindle. The BT (metric style) is popular overseas.

HSK Holders

This type of holder is a German standard known as “hollow shank taper.” The tapered portion of the holder is much shorter than its counterparts. It also engages the spindle in a different way and does not require a pull stud or retention knob. The HSK holder is utilized to create repeatability and longer tool life – particularly in High Efficiency Milling (HEM) applications.

All of these holders have benefits and limitations including price, accuracy, and availability. The proper selection will depend largely on your application requirements.

Torque vs. Horsepower

Torque is defined as force perpendicular to the axis of rotation across a distance. It is important to have high torque capabilities when using an end mill larger than ½ inch, or when machining a difficult material such as Inconel. Torque will help put power behind the cutting action of the tool.

Horsepower refers to the amount of work being done. Horsepower is important for smaller diameter end mills and easy-to-machine materials like aluminum.

You can think of torque as a tractor: It can’t go very fast, but there is a lot of power behind it. Think of horsepower as a racecar: It can go very fast but cannot pull or push.

Torque-Horsepower Chart

Every machine and spindle should come with a torque horsepower chart. These charts will help you understand how to maximize your spindle for torque or horsepower, depending on what you need:

Image Source: HAAS Machine Manual

Proper Spindle Size

The size of the spindle and shank taper corresponds to the weight and length of the tools being used, as well as the material you are planning to machine. CAT40 is the most commonly used spindle in the United States. These spindles are great for utilizing tools that have a ½ inch diameter end mill or smaller in any material. If you are considering using a 1 inch end mill in a material like Inconel or Titanium, a CAT50 would be a more appropriate choice. The higher the taper angle is, the more torque the spindle is capable of.

While choosing the correct tool for your application is important, choosing a tool your spindle can utilize is paramount to machining success. Knowing the amount of torque required will help machinists save a lot of headaches.

How Boring Bar Geometries Impact Cutting Operations

Boring is a turning operation that allows a machinist to make a pre-existing hole bigger through multiple iterations of internal boring. It has a number of advantages over traditional drilling methods:

  • The ability to cost-effectively produce a hole outside standard drill sizes
  • The creation of more precise holes, and therefore tighter tolerances
  • A greater finish quality
  • The opportunity to create multiple dimensions within the bore itself

 

Solid carbide boring bars, such as those offered by Micro 100,  have a few standard dimensions that give the tool basic functionality in removing material from an internal bore. These include:

Minimum Bore Diameter (D1): The minimum diameter of a hole for the cutting end of the tool to completely fit inside without making contact at opposing sides

Maximum Bore Depth (L2): Maximum depth that the tool can reach inside a hole without contact from the shank portion

Shank Diameter (D2): Diameter of the portion of the tool in contact with the tool holder

Overall Length (L1): Total length of the tool

Centerline Offset (F): The distance between a tool’s tip and the shank’s centerline axis

Tool Selection

In order to minimize tool deflection and therefore risk of tool failure, it is important to choose a tool with a max bore depth that is only slightly larger than the length it is intended to cut. It is also beneficial to maximize the boring bar and shank diameter as this will increase the rigidity of the tool. This must be balanced with leaving enough room for chips to evacuate. This balance ultimately comes down to the material being bored. A harder material with a lower feed rate and depths of cut may not need as much space for chips to evacuate, but may require a larger and more rigid tool. Conversely, a softer material with more aggressive running parameters will need more room for chip evacuation, but may not require as rigid of a tool.

Geometries

In addition, they have a number of different geometric features in order to adequately handle the three types of forces acting upon the tool during this machining process. During a standard boring operation, the greatest of these forces is tangential, followed by feed (sometimes called axial), and finally radial. Tangential force acts perpendicular to the rake surface and pushes the tool away from the centerline. Feed force does not cause deflection, but pushes back on the tool and acts parallel to the centerline. Radial force pushes the tool towards the center of the bore.

 

Defining the Geometric Features of Boring Bars:

Nose Radius: the roundness of a tool’s cutting point

Side Clearance (Radial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the nose relative to the axis parallel to the centerline of the tool

End Clearance (Axial Clearance): The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the axis running perpendicular to the centerline of the tool

Side Rake Angle: The angle measuring the sideways tilt of the side face of the tool

Back Rake Angle: The angle measuring the degree to which the back face is tilted in relation to the centerline of the workpiece

Side Relief Angle: The angle measuring how far the bottom face is tilted away from the workpiece

End Relief Angle: The angle measuring the tilt of the end face relative to the line running perpendicular to the center axis of the tool

Effects of Geometric Features on Cutting Operations:

Nose Radius: A large nose radius makes more contact with the workpiece, extending the life of the tool and the cutting edge as well as leaving a better finish. However, too large of a radius will lead to chatter as the tool is more exposed to tangential and radial cutting forces.

Another way this feature affects the cutting action is in determining how much of the cutting edge is struck by tangential force. The magnitude of this effect is largely dependent on the feed and depth of cut. Different combinations of depth of cuts and nose angles will result in either shorter or longer lengths of the cutting edge being exposed to the tangential force. The overall effect being the degree of edge wear. If only a small portion of the cutting edge is exposed to a large force it would be worn down faster than if a longer portion of the edge is succumb to the same force. This phenomenon also occurs with the increase and decrease of the end cutting edge angle.

End Cutting Edge Angle: The main purpose of the end cutting angle is for clearance when cutting in the positive Z direction (moving into the hole). This clearance allows the nose radius to be the main point of contact between the tool and the workpiece. Increasing the end cutting edge angle in the positive direction decreases the strength of the tip, but also decreases feed force. This is another situation where balance of tip strength and cutting force reduction must be found. It is also important to note that the angle may need to be changed depending on the type of boring one is performing.

Side Rake Angle: The nose angle is one geometric dimension that determines how much of the cutting edge is hit by tangential force but the side rake angle determines how much that force is redistributed into radial force. A positive rake angle means a lower tangential cutting force as allows for a greater amount of shearing action. However, this angle cannot be too great as it compromises cutting edge integrity by leaving less material for the nose angle and side relief angle.

Back Rake Angle: Sometimes called the top rake angle, the back rake angle for solid carbide boring bars is ground to help control the flow of chips cut on the end portion of the tool. This feature cannot have too sharp of a positive angle as it decreases the tools strength.

Side and End Relief Angles: Like the end cutting edge angle, the main purpose of the side and end relief angles are to provide clearance so that the tools non-cutting portion doesn’t rub against the workpiece. If the angles are too small then there is a risk of abrasion between the tool and the workpiece. This friction leads to increased tool wear, vibration and poor surface finish. The angle measurements will generally be between 0° and 20°.

Boring Bar Geometries Summarized

Boring bars have a few overall dimensions that allow for the boring of a hole without running the tool holder into the workpiece, or breaking the tool instantly upon contact. Solid carbide boring bars have a variety of angles that are combined differently to distribute the 3 types of cutting forces in order to take full advantage of the tool. Maximizing tool performance requires the combination of choosing the right tool along with the appropriate feed rate, depth of cut and RPM. These factors are dependent on the size of the hole, amount of material that needs to be removed, and mechanical properties of the workpiece.

 

The Geometries and Purposes of a Slitting Saw

When a machinist needs to cut material significantly deeper than wide, a Slitting Saw is an ideal choice to get the job done. A Slitting Saw is unique due to its composition and rigidity, which allows it to hold up in a variety of both straightforward and tricky to machine materials.

What is a Slitting Saw?

A Slitting Saw is a flat (with or without a dish), circular-shaped saw that has a hole in the middle and teeth on the outer diameter. Used in conjunction with an arbor, a Slitting Saw is intended for machining purposes that require a large amount of material to be removed within a small diameter, such as slotting or cutoff applications.

Other names for Slitting Saws include (but are not limited to) Slitting Cutters, Slotting Cutters, Jewelers Saws, and Slitting Knives. Both Jewelers Saws and Slitting Knives are particular types of Slitting Saws. Jewelers Saws have a high tooth count enabling them to cut tiny, precise features, and Slitting Knives are Slitting Saws with no teeth at all. On Jewelers Saws, the tooth counts are generally much higher than other types of saws in order to make the cuts as accurate as possible.

Key Terminology

Why Use a Slitting Saw?

These saws are designed for cutting into both ferrous and non-ferrous materials, and by utilizing their unique shape and geometries, they can cut thin slot type features on parts more efficiently than any other machining tool.

Common Applications:

  1. Separating Two Pieces of Material
    1. If an application calls for cutting a piece of material, such as a rod, in half, then a slitting saw will work well to cut the pieces apart while increasing efficiency.
  2. Undercutting Applications
    1. Saws can perform undercutting applications if mounted correctly, which can eliminate the need to remount the workpiece completely.
  3. Slotting into Material
    1. Capable of creating thin slots with a significant depth of cut, Slitting Saws can be just the right tool for the job!

When Not to Use a Slitting Saw

While it may look similar to a stainless steel circular saw blade from a hardware store, a Slitting Saw should never be used with construction tools such as a table or circular saw.  Brittle saw blades such as slitting saws will shatter when used on manual machines, and can cause injury when not used on the proper set up.

In Conclusion

Slitting Saws can be beneficial to a wide variety of machining processes, and it is vital to understand their geometries and purpose before attempting to utilize them in the shop. They are a great tool to have in the shop and can assist with getting jobs done as quickly and efficiently as possible.

How to Advance Your Machining Career: 8 Tips from Machining Pros

Since we began shining a light on Harvey Performance Company brand customers via “In the Loupe’s,” Featured Customer posts, more than 20 machinists have been asked to share insight relevant to how they’ve achieved success. Each Featured Customer post includes interesting and useful information on a variety of machining-related subjects, including prototyping ideas, expanding a business, getting into machining, advantages and disadvantages of utilizing different milling machine types, and more. This post compiles 8 useful tips from our Featured Customers on ways to advance your machining career.

Tip 1: Be Persistent – Getting Your Foot in the Door is Half the Battle

With machining technology advancing at the amazing rate that it is, there is no better time to become a machinist. It is a trade that is constantly improving, and offers so many opportunities for young people. Eddie Casanueva of Nueva Precision first got into machining when he was in college, taking a job at an on-campus research center for manufacturing systems to support himself.

“The research center had all the workings of a machine shop,” Eddie said. “There were CNC mills, lathes, injection molding machines, and more. It just looked awesome. I managed to get hired for a job at minimum wage sweeping the shop floor and helping out where I could.

As a curious student, I would ask a million questions… John – an expert machinist – took me under his wing and taught me lots of stuff about machining. I started buying tools and building out my toolbox with him for a while, absorbing everything that I could.”

One of the best things about becoming a machinist is that there is a fairly low entry barrier. Many machinists start working right out of high school, with 12-18 months of on-the-job training or a one to two year apprenticeship. Nearly 70% of the machinist workforce is over the age of 45. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is predicting a 10% increase in the machinist workforce with opportunities for 29,000 additional skilled machinists by 2024, so it is certainly a great time to get your foot in the door.

Tip 2: Keep an Open Mind – If You Can Think of It, You Can Machine It

Being open-minded is crucial to becoming the best machinist you can be. By keeping an open mind, Oklahoma City-based company Okluma’s owner Jeff Sapp has quickly earned a reputation for his product as one of the best built and most reliable flashlights on the market today. Jeff’s idea for Okluma came to him while riding his motorcycle across the country.

“I had purchased what I thought was a nice flashlight for $50 to carry with me on the trip. However, two days in to the trip the flashlight broke. Of course, it was dark and I was in the middle of nowhere trying to work on my bike. I’m happy to pay for good tools, but that wasn’t what happened. Not only was there no warranty for replacement, there was no way to fix it. It was just made to be thrown away. That whole attitude makes me angry. When I got home, I decided I was going to put my new skills to work and design and build my own flashlight, with the goal of never running into an issue like I had on my trip ever again. I started by making one for myself, then four, then twenty. That was four years ago. Now I have my own business with one employee and two dogs, and we stay very busy.”

An awesome side benefit to working as a machinist is that you have all the resources to create anything you can dream of, like Jeff did with Okluma.

Image courtesy of Okluma.

Tip 3: Be Patient – Take Time to Ensure Your Job is Setup Correctly before Beginning

The setup process is a huge part of machining, but is often overlooked. Alex Madsen, co- owner of M5 Micro in Minnesota, has been working in manufacturing for more than 11 years. Alex is also a part owner of World Fabrication, and owns his own job shop called Madsen Machine and Design. Alex has spent countless hours perfecting his setup to improve his part times.

“It is certainly challenging to use little tools, but the key is to not get discouraged. You should plan on lots of trial and error; breaking tools is just a part of the game. You may buy ten end mills and break six, but once you dial one in it will last the rest of the job.

You should also make sure to put extra time and effort into understanding your machine when working on micromachining jobs. You need to know where there is any backlash or issues with the machine because with a tiny tool, even an extra .0003” cut can mean the end of your tool. When a difference of one tenth can make or break your job, you need to take your time and be extra careful with your machine, tool inspection, and programming before you hit run.”

Tip 4: Effort Pays Off – Long Hours Result in Shop Growth

Success isn’t earned overnight. That is especially true in the machining world. Becoming a good machinist takes a great deal of sacrifice, says Josh from Fleet Machine Co. in Gloucester, MA.

“Opening your own shop involves more than learning how to program and machine. You also need to be willing to sacrifice some of your free time by working long hours to build your business from the ground up. Being a great machinist is important, but you also need to understand the basics of business, and you need to be able to sell your service and maintain a certain level of quality to keep your customers coming back.”

Working hard is a common theme we hear from our featured customers. Brothers Geordan and Nace Roberts of Master Machine Manufacturing have similar advice.

“We often need to work odd hours of the day to maintain the business, but we do it in a way that makes sure we have our family time. There are many times where we will go home, have dinner and hang out with the family, and wait until they are all sleeping to go back to work until two or three a.m. We will get back home later that morning to sleep a little and have breakfast with the family and send them on their way before heading back into the shop.” Starting and growing a business takes time. Every machinist starts from the beginning and through hard work and determination, grows their business.

Image courtesy of Liberty Machine Inc.

Tip 5: Utilize Tooling from Quality Manufacturers – All Tooling Isn’t Created Equal

 

When it comes down to it, tooling is singlehandedly the biggest choice you will make as a machinist. Grant Hughson, manufacturing engineer at Weiss Watch Company who works as a manufacturing instructor in his spare time, reflected on the importance of tooling.

“Tool to tool accuracy and performance is vital in this business, especially with our extremely tight tolerances. High quality tools make sure that we get the same performance time after time without needing to scrap parts. This saves us valuable time and money.”

While opting for cheaper tooling can appear to be beneficial when just starting out, before long, machinists are losing time and money because of unpredictability. Jonathan from TL Technologies echoed this point, saying:

“We feel that if we invested so much in these high-end machining centers, it would be criminal to put insufficient tooling and holders into them. We found that by selecting the proper tool with the appropriate sciences behind it we have been able to create products with a cost per cut that is not only competitive, but required to stay current. By keeping the quality as high as possible on the part making side of things, we’ve insured as much ease and reliability into our downstream process as we could. Quality tooling also provides predictability and added safety into the workflow. High-quality carbide tooling is the lifeblood of the business.”

Additional Thoughts Regarding Boosting Your Machining Career With Tooling:

Don’t Cheap Out

  • “The additional cost is always worth the payoff in the end knowing that you have a tool that will produce quality parts and shave valuable minutes off your cycle times. The slightly higher cost of the Harvey/Helical product is small change compared to the long term cost savings associated with their performance” – Seth, Liberty Machine

Consistency is Key

  • “We know the performance we are going to get from the tools is consistent, and we can always rely on getting immaculate finishes. While using the Harvey Tool and Helical product, we can confidently walk away from the machine and come back to a quality finished part every time.” – Bennett, RIT Baja SAE

Superior Specialty Tools

  • “One of the greatest things that I’ve experienced over the past year and a half is flexibility. We’ve asked for some specific tools to be made typically, the lead times that we found were beyond what we needed. We went through the Helical specials division and had them built within a couple of weeks. That was a game changer for us.” – Tom, John Force Racing

“Having high quality tooling like Helical is essential. Helical tools help us maintain a much higher machining efficiency because of the outstanding tool life, while also achieving more aggressive run times. In addition, we are able to consistently keep high tolerances, resulting in a better final product.” – Cameron, Koenig Knives

Tip 6: Get With the Times – Join the Social Media Community

Social media is a valuable tool for machinists. With ever-increasing popularity in networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram, there will always be an audience to showcase new and unique products to. We asked a few of our featured customers how they incorporated social media into their machining and the benefits that come along with it.

“A lot of our sales come through Instagram or Facebook, so I would recommend those platforms to anyone who is trying to start a business,” Jeff from Okluma said. “We have also had a lot of success collaborating with others in the community. Typically it is something we couldn’t do ourselves, or they couldn’t do themselves, so we share the labor and collaborate on some really cool items.”

Tip 7: Value Your Customers – Always Put Them First

“In the Loupe’s” featured customers repeatedly emphasized the importance of putting customers first. It’s a simple concept to master, and pays off immensely. Repeat customers tell you that you are doing something right, said Brian Ross, owner of Form Factory.

“We have kept our customers happy and consistently deliver parts on time, so we get a lot of repeat business. Word definitely gets around on how you treat people so we try to treat everyone with respect and honesty which is key to running a good business.” Jeff from Okluma takes great pride in his customer service, saying “we only sell direct to consumers through our website so we can control our lifetime warranty. It has worked really well for us so far, so we have no plans to change that right now. I care more about our customers than any retailer is able to.”

Image courtesy of MedTorque.

Tip 8: Never Stop Learning – Ask Questions Whenever You Can

Hopefully some of these tips from our featured customers stuck with you. To leave you with a quote from of Seth Madore, owner of Liberty Machine, “Don’t stop learning. Keep your ears open and your mouth shut,” “That old guy in the shop has likely forgotten more than you will ever learn. The amount of tools in your Kennedy box doesn’t mean you’re a good machinist. Some of the best toolmakers I knew had small boxes with only the common tools. Learn how to excel with limited resources. Ask questions, and own up to your mistakes.”

Machining Precious Metals

Precious metals can be particularly difficult to machine due to their wide range of material properties and high cost if a part has to be scrapped. The following article will introduce these elements and their alloys as well as provide a guide on how to machine them effectively and efficiently.

About the Elements

Sometimes called “noble” metals, precious metals consist of eight elements that lie in the middle of the periodic table (seen below in Figure 1). The eight metals are:

  1. Ruthenium (Ru)
  2. Rhodium (Rh)
  3. Palladium (Pd)
  4. Silver (Ag)
  5. Osmium (Os)
  6. Iridium (Ir)
  7. Platinum (Pt)
  8. Gold (Au)

These elements are some of the rarest materials on earth, and can therefore be enormously expensive. Gold and silver can be found in pure nugget form, making them more easily available. However, the other six elements are typically found mixed in the raw ore of the four metals they sit below on the periodic table: Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), and Copper (Cu). These elements are a subset of precious metals and are generally called Platinum Group Metals (PGM). Because they are found together in raw ore, this makes mining and extraction difficult, dramatically increasing their cost. Because of their high price tag, machining these materials right the first time is incredibly important to a shop’s efficiency.

machining metals

Figure 1: Periodic table with the 8 precious metals boxed in blue. Image source: clearscience.tumblr.com

Basic Properties and Compositions of Precious Metals

Precious metals have notable material properties as they are characteristically soft, ductile, and oxidation resistant. They are called “noble” metals because of their resistance to most types of chemical and environmental attack. Table 1 lists a few telling material properties of precious metals in their elemental form. For comparison purposes, they are side-by-side with 6061 Al and 4140 Steel. Generally, only gold and silver are used in their purest form as the platinum group metals are alloys that consist mainly of platinum (with a smaller composition of Ru, Rh, Pa, Os, Ir). Precious metals are notable for being extremely dense and having a high melting point, which make them suitable for a variety of applications.

Table 1: Cold-worked Material Properties of Precious Metals, 4140 Steel and 6061 Aluminum 

precious metals

Common Machining Applications of Precious Metals

Silver and gold have particularly favorable thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. These values are listed in Table 2, along with CC1000 (annealed copper) and annealed 6061 aluminum, for comparison purposes. Copper is generally used in electrical wiring because of its relatively low electrical resistivity, even though silver would make a better substitute. The obvious reason this isn’t the general convention is the cost of silver vs. copper. That being said, copper is generally plated with gold at electrical contact areas because it tends to oxide after extended use, which lowers its resistivity. As stated before, gold and the other precious metals are known to be resistant to oxidation. This corrosion resistance is the main reason that they are used in cathodic protection systems of the electronics industry.

Table 2: Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity of Ag, Au, Cu, and Al 

machining metals

Platinum and its respective alloys offer the most amount of applications as it can achieve a number of different mechanical properties while still maintaining the benefits of a precious metal (high melting point, ductility, and oxidation resistance). Table 3 lists platinum and a number of other PGMs each with their own mechanical properties. The variance of these properties depends on the alloying element(s) being added to the platinum, the percentage of alloying metal, and whether or not the material has been cold-worked or annealed. Alloying can significantly increase the tensile strength and hardness of a material while decreasing its ductility at the same time. The ratio of this tensile strength/hardness increase to ductility decrease depends on the metal added as well as how much is added, as seen in Table 3. Generally this depends on the particle size of the element added as well as its natural crystalline structure. Ruthenium and Osmium have a specific crystal structure that has a significant hardening effect when added to platinum. Pt-Os alloys in particular are extremely hard and practically unworkable, which doesn’t yield many real-world applications. However, the addition of the other 4 PGMs to platinum allow for a range of mechanical properties with various usages.

Table 3: PGM material properties (Note: the hardness and tensile strength are cold worked values) 

machining metals

Platinum and its alloys are biocompatible, giving them the ability to be placed in the human body for long periods of time without causing adverse reactions or poisoning. Therefore, medical devices including heart muscle screw fixations, stents, and marker bands for angioplasty devices are made from platinum and its alloys. Gold and palladium are also commonly used in dental applications.

Pt-Ir alloys are noticeably harder and stronger than any of the other alloys and make excellent heads for spark plugs in the automobile industry. Rhodium is sometimes added to Pt-Ir alloys to make the material less springy (as they are used as medical spring wire) while also increasing its workability. Pt and Pt-Rh wire pairs are extremely effective at measuring temperatures and are therefore used in thermocouples.

Machining Precious Metals

The two parameters that have the most effect when machining are hardness and percent elongation. Hardness is well-known by machinists and engineers across the manufacturing industry as it indicates a material’s resistance to deformation or cutting. Percent elongation is a measurement used to quantify material ductility. It indicates to a designer the degree to which a structure will deform plastically (permanently) before fracture. For example, a ductile plastic such as ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has a percent elongation of 350-525%, while a more brittle material such as oil-quenched and tempered cast iron (grade 120-90-02) has a percent elongation of about 2%. Therefore, the greater the percent elongation, the greater the material’s “gumminess.” Gummy materials are prone to built-up edge and have a tendency to produce long stringy chips.

Tools for Precious Metals

Material ductility makes a sharp cutting tool essential for cutting precious metals. Variable Helix for Aluminum Alloy tools can be used for the softer materials such as pure gold, silver, and platinum.

machining metals

Figure 2: Variable Helix Square End Mill for Aluminum Alloys

Higher hardness materials still require a sharp cutting edge. Therefore, one’s best option is to invest in a PCD Diamond tool. The PCD wafer has the ability to cut extremely hard materials while maintaining a sharp cutting edge for a relatively long period of time, compared to standard HSS and carbide cutting edges.

machining metals

Figure 3: PCD Diamond Square End Mill

Speeds and Feeds charts:

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Figure 4: Speeds and Feeds for precious metals when using a Square Non-ferrous, 3x LOC

 

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Figure 5: Speeds and Feeds for precious metals when using a 2-Flute Square PCD end mill

 

What to Know About Harvey Tool’s TiB2 Coating

Aluminum and magnesium alloys are common materials found in machine shops worldwide, and are known as an “easier” material to machine. However, machinists can still experience hiccups while machining this material if they are not prepared with the proper tooling.. When working with aluminum and magnesium alloys, it is important to choose a coating that will work to extend your tool’s life and aid in the removal of chips. A popular choice for this material bucket is Harvey Tool’s TiB2 coating.

What is Harvey Tool’s TiB2 Coating?

Harvey Tool’s TiB2 coating is a Titanium Diboride, ceramic-based coating that provides superb erosion resistance during machining. TiB2 is added to a tool by a method called Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), which is conducted in a vacuum where particles are vaporized and applied onto a surface, forming thin layers of material onto the properly-prepped tool. This method enables the coating to be corrosion and tarnish resistant.

TiB2 Specifications

TiB2 is identified in Harvey Tool’s product catalog with a “-C8” following the sku number. It can be found offered in Harvey Tool’s lines of Variable Helix End Mills for Aluminum Alloys, Double Angle Shank Cutters, and Miniature High Performance Drills for Aluminum Alloys.

When Should a Machinist Use TiB2?

Chip Evacuation Concerns

TiB2 has an extremely low affinity to aluminum, which helps with the chip evacuation process. Simply, chips of a material are able to evacuate through chip valleys easier if they don’t have a high affinity to the coating being used. TiB2 coating does not chemically react with aluminum and magnesium, which allows for smoother chip evacuation, as the chips do not stick to the coating and create issues such as chip packing. This is a common machining mishap that can cause both part and tool damage, quickly derailing a machining operation. By using a coating that increases the lubricity of the tool, chips will not have a surface to stick to and will more smoothly evacuate from the flutes of the tool.

Large Production Runs

While an uncoated tool may work fine in some applications, not all applications can succeed without a tool coating. When working with large production runs where the tools need to hold up through the process of machining large numbers of parts, using a coating is always recommended because they extend the life of your tool.

When is TiB2 Coating Not Beneficial to My Application?

Extremely Abrasive Materials

During the PVD coating process, tools can reach a temperature in excess of 500° F, which can cause the toughness of the carbide to drop slightly. This process does not normally compromise the performance of the tool due to the coating being placed over the carbide. The coating then protects the slightly weakened edge and increases tool performance in recommended materials. Micro-fractures only start appearing when the tool is being run incredibly fast through highly abrasive materials, leading to a decrease in the life of the tool.

Extremely Soft Materials

The coating, while only a few microns thick at most, still provides an ever-so-slight rounded edge to the cutting edge of the tools it is placed on. It is important to take this into consideration, as using the sharpest tools possible when working with materials such as soft plastics is recommended. The sharpest edge possible decreases the likelihood of any “pushing” that might occur on the material and increases the likelihood of proper “shearing” when machining.

When Finish Is Vital

If your part’s finish is imperative to the final product, an uncoated tool may work better for your application. A coating, like stated above, creates a microscopic rounded surface to the cutting edge of the tool. When running tools at finishing speeds and feeds in materials like aluminum, a sharp edge can create the difference between a finished part that does – or does not – pass final inspection.

Confidently Select Your Next Thread Mill

Do you know the key differences between a Single Form Thread Mill and a Multi-Form Thread Mill? Do you know which tooling option is best for your job? This blog post examines how several factors, including the tool’s form and max depth of thread, are important to ultimately making the appropriate Harvey Tool thread mill decision.

Thread Mill Product Offering

Single Form Thread Mill

The single form thread mill is the most versatile threading solution Harvey Tool offers. These tools are ground to a sharp point and are capable of milling 60° thread styles, such as UN, metric, and NPT threads. With over 14 UN and 10 Metric sized tools, Harvey Tool’s single form selections allow machinists the opportunity to machine many different types of threads.

Thread Mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Single Form Thread Mills for Hardened Steels

Similar to the standard single form thread mills, Harvey Tool’s thread mills for hardened steels offer machinists a quality option when dealing with hardened steels from 46-68 Rc. The following unique geometries helps this tool machine tough alloys:

  1. Ground Flat – Instead of a sharp point these tools have a ground flat to help ensure long tool life.
  2. Eccentric Relief – Gives the cutting edges extra strength for the high feeds at relatively low RPMs required for harder materials.
  3. AlTiN Nano Coating – Allows for superior heat resistance.
thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

A key difference between the standard Single Form Thread Mill and the Single Form Thread Mills for Hardened Steels is that the thread mills for hardened steels are actually only capable of milling 83% of the actual thread depth. At first, this may seem detrimental to your operation. However, according to the Machinery’s Handbook 29th Edition, “Tests have shown that any increase in the percentage of full thread over 60% does not significantly increase the strength of the thread. Often, a 55% to 60% thread is satisfactory, although 75% threads are commonly used to provide an extra margin of safety.” With the ability to preserve tool life and effectively perform thread components, Harvey Tool’s single form thread mills for hardened steels are a natural choice when tackling a hardened material.

Tri-Form Thread Mills

Tri-Form thread mills are designed for difficult-to-machine materials. The tri-form design reduces tool pressure and deflection, which results in more accurate threading. Its left-hand cut, left-hand spiral design allows it to climb mill from the top of the thread to the bottom.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Multi-Form Thread Mills

Our multi-form thread mills are offered in styles such as UN, NPT, and Metric. Multi-Form Thread Mills are optimized to produce a full thread in single helical interpolation. Additionally, they allow a machinist to quickly turn around production-style jobs.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Coolant-Through Multi Form Thread Mills

Coolant-Through Multi Form Thread Mills are the perfect tool for when a job calls for thread milling in a blind hole. The coolant through ability of the tool produces superior chip evacuation. These tools also improve coolant flow to the workpiece – delivering it directly from the tip of the tool – for decreased friction and high cutting speeds.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Long Flute Thread Mills

These tools are great when a job calls for a deep thread, due to their long flute. Long Flute Thread Mills also have a large cutter diameter and core, which provides the tool with improved tool strength and stability.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

N.P.T. Multi-Form Thread Mills

While it may seem obvious, N.P.T. Multi-Form Thread Mills are perfect for milling NPT threads. NPT threads are great for when a part requires a full seal, different from traditional threads that hold pieces together without the water-tight seal.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Using Tool Libraries in Autodesk HSM & Fusion 360

The days of modeling your tools in CAM are coming to an end. Harvey Performance Company has partnered with Autodesk to provide comprehensive Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions tool libraries to Fusion 360 and Autodesk HSM users. Now, users can access 3D models of every Harvey and Helical tool with a quick download and a few simple clicks. Keep reading to learn how to download these libraries, find the tool you are looking for, how to think about speeds and feeds for these libraries, and more.

Downloading Tool Libraries

On the Autodesk HSM Tools page, you will find Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions tool libraries. Clicking either of the previous links will bring you to that brand’s tool libraries. Right now, all of the two brands more than 27,000 tools are supported in the tool libraries.

Once on the page, there will be a download option for both Fusion and HSM. Select which software you are currently using to be prompted with a download for the correct file format.

From there, you will need to import the tool libraries from your Downloads folder into Fusion 360 or HSM. These tool libraries can be imported into your “Local” or “Cloud” libraries in Fusion 360, depending on where you would like them to appear. For HSM, simply import the HSMLIB file you have downloaded as you would any other tool library.

Curt Chan, Autodesk MFG Marketing Manager, takes a deeper dive into the process behind downloading, importing, and using CAM tool libraries to Fusion in the instructional video below.

For HSM users, jump to the 2:45 mark in this video from Autodesk’s Lars Christensen, who explains how to download and import these libraries into Autodesk HSM.


Selecting a Tool

Once you have downloaded and imported your tool libraries, selecting a specific tool or group of tools can be done in several ways.

Searching by Tool Number

To search by tool number, simply enter the tool number into the search bar at the top of your tool library window. For example, if you are looking for Helical Tool EDP 00015, enter “00015” into the search bar and the results will narrow to show only that tool.

Fusion 360 Tool Libraries

In the default display settings for Fusion 360, the tool number is not displayed in the table of results, where you will find the tool name, flute count, cutter diameter, and other important information. If you would like to add the tool number to this list of available data, you can right click on the top menu bar where it says “Name” and select “Product ID” from the drop down menu. This will add the tool number (ex. 00015) to the list of information readily available to you in the table.

Harvey Tool Tool Libraries

Searching by Keyword

To search by a keyword, simply input the keyword into the search bar at the top of the tool library window. For example, if you are looking for metric tooling, you can search “metric” to filter by tools matching that keyword. This is helpful when searching for Specialty Profile tools which are not supported by the current profile filters, like the Harvey Tool Double Angle Shank Cutters seen in the example below.

Fusion 360 Tool Libraries

Searching by Tool Type

To search by tool type, click the “Type” button in the top menu of your tool library window. From there, you will be able to segment the tools by their profile. For example, if you only wanted to see Harvey Tool ball nose end mills, choose “Ball” and your tool results will filter accordingly.

Tool Libraries

As more specialty profiles are added, these filters will allow you to filter by profiles such as chamfer, dovetail, drill, threadmill, and more. However, some specialty profile tools do not currently have a supported tool type. These tools show as “form tools” and are easier to find by searching by tool number or name. For example, there is not currently a profile filter for “Double Angle Shank Cutters” so you will not be able to sort by that profile. Instead, type “Double Angle Shank Cutter” into the search bar (see “Searching by Keyword”) to filter by that tool type.

Searching by Tool Dimensions

To search by tool dimensions, click the “Dimensions” button in the top menu of your tool library window. From there, you will be able to filter tools by your desired dimensions, including cutter diameter, flute count, overall length, radius, and flute length (also known as length of cut). For example, if you wanted to see Helical 3 flute end mills in a 0.5 inch diameter, you would check off the boxes next to “Diameter” and “Flute Count” and enter the values you are looking for. From there, the tool results will filter based on the selections you have made.

Tool Libraries

Using Specialty Profile Tools

Due to the differences in naming conventions between manufacturers, some Harvey Tool/Helical specialty profile tools will not appear exactly as you think in Fusion 360/HSM. However, each tool does contain a description with the exact name of the tool. For example, Harvey Tool Drill/End Mills display in Fusion 360 as Spot Drills, but the description field will call them out as Drill/End Mill tools, as you can see below.

Below is a chart that will help you match up Harvey Tool/Helical tool names with the current Fusion 360 tool names.

Tool Name Fusion 360 Name
Back Chamfer Cutter Dovetail Mill
Chamfer Cutters Chamfer Mill
Corner Rounding End Mill – Unflared Radius Mill
Dovetail Cutter Dovetail Mill
Drill/End Mill Spot Drill
Engraving Cutter/Marking Cutter – Tip Radius Tapered Mill
Engraving Cutter – Tipped Off & Pointed Chamfer Mill
Keyseat Cutter Slot Mill
Runner Cutter Tapered Mill
Undercutting End Mill Lollipop Mill
All Other Specialty Profiles Form Mill

Speeds and Feeds

To ensure the best possible machining results, we have decided not to pre-populate speeds and feeds information into our tool libraries. Instead, we encourage machinists to access the speeds and feeds resources that we offer to dial accurate running parameters based on their material, application, and machine capabilities.

Harvey Tool Speeds & Feeds

To access speeds and feeds information for your Harvey Tool product, head to http://www.harveytool.com/cms/SpeedsFeeds_228.aspx to find speeds and feeds libraries for every tool.

If you are looking for tool specific speeds and feeds information, you will need to access the tool’s “Tech Info” page. You can reach these pages by clicking any of the hyperlinked tool numbers across all of our product tables. From there, simply click “Speeds & Feeds” to access the speeds and feeds PDF for that specific tool.

If you have further questions about speeds and feeds, please reach out to our Technical Support team. They can be reached Monday-Friday from 8 AM to 7 PM EST at 800-645-5609, or by email at [email protected].

Helical Solutions Speeds & Feeds

To access speeds and feeds information for your Helical Solutions end mills, we recommend using our Machining Advisor Pro application. Machining Advisor Pro (MAP) generates specialized machining parameters by pairing the unique geometries of your Helical Solutions end mill with your exact tool path, material, and machine setup. MAP is available free of charge as a web-based desktop app, or as a downloadable application on the App Store for iOS and Google Play.

machining advisor pro

To learn more about Machining Advisor Pro and get started today, visit www.machiningadvisorpro.com. If you have any questions about MAP, please reach out to us at [email protected].

If you have further questions about speeds and feeds, please reach out to our Technical Support team. They can be reached Monday-Friday from 8 AM to 7 PM EST at 866-543-5422, or by email at [email protected].


For additional questions or help using tool libraries, please send an email to [email protected]. If you would like to request a Harvey Performance Company tool library be added to your CAM package, please fill out the form here and let us know! We will be sure to notify you when your CAM package has available tool libraries.