Posts

Main Differences Between Engravers & Marking Cutters

While similar on the surface, Half-round Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters are actually very different. Both tools are unique in the geometries they possess, the benefits they offer, and the specific purposes they’re used for. Below are the key differences between Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters that all machinists must know, as the engraving on a part is often a critical step in the machining process.

Engravers & Marking Cutters Serve Different Purposes

All Marking Cutters are Engraving Cutters, but not all Engraving Cutters are Marking Cutters. This is because Marking Cutters are a “type” of engraving tool. By virtue of their sturdier geometry, Marking Cutters are suited for applications requiring repetition such as the engraving of serial numbers onto parts. Harvey Tool has been able to customize specific tool geometries for ferrous and non-ferrous applications, offering Marking Cutters for material specific purposes.

engraver

Engraving Cutters, on the other hand, are meant for finer detailed applications that require intricate designs such as engraving a wedding band or a complex brand design.

engraver

These Tools Have Unique Geometry Features

Historically, Engraving Cutters have been made as a half round style tool. This tool allows for a true point, which is better for fine detail, but can easily break if not run correctly. Because of this, Engraving Cutters have performed well in softer materials such as aluminum and wood, especially for jobs that require an artistic engraving with fine detail.

Marking cutters are not as widely seen throughout the industry, however. These tools hold up in harder-to-machine materials exceedingly well. Marking Cutters are a form of Engraving Cutter that contain 2 flutes and a web at the tip, meaning that the tool has a stronger tip and is less susceptible to breakage.

engraver

While these tools do not contain a true point (due to their web), they do feature shear flutes for better cutting action and the ability to evacuate chips easier when compared to a half-round engraver.

Harvey Tool Product Offering

Harvey Tool offers a wide variety of both Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters. Choose from a selection of pointed, double-ended, tip radius, and tipped-off Engraving Cutter styles in 15 included angles ranging from 10° to 120°.

engraver

Marking Cutters are fully stocked in tip radius or tipped-off options, and are designed specifically for either ferrous or non-ferrous materials. Marking Cutters are offered in included angles from 20° to 120°.

While Engraving Cutters are offered uncoated or in AlTiN, AlTiN Nano, or Amorphous Diamond coatings, Marking Cutters are fully stocked in uncoated, AlTiN, or TiB2 coated styles.

Marking Cutters & Engravers Summarized

While both Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters can accomplish similar tasks, each tool has its own advantages and purpose. Selecting the correct tool is based largely on preference and applicability to the job at hand. Factors that could impact your selection would be final Depth of Cut, Width of Cut, the angle needing to be achieved, and the desired detail of the engraving.

Experience the Benefits of Staggered Tooth Keyseats

Keyseat Cutters, also known as Woodruff Cutters, Keyway Cutters, and T-Slot Cutters, are commonly used in machine shops. Many machinists opt to use this tool to put a slot on the side of a part in an efficient manner, rather than rotating the workpiece and using a traditional end mill. A Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutter has alternating right-hand and left hand shear flutes and is right-hand cut, whereas a traditional keyseat cutter has all straight flutes and is right-hand cut. Simply, the unique geometry of a Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutter gives the tool its own set of advantages including the ability to index within the slot, increase feed rates, and achieve better part finish.

staggered tooth keyseat cutter

Three Key Benefits

Indexing

The alternating right-and-left-hand flutes of a Harvey Tool Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutters are relieved on both sides of its head, meaning that it allows for both end cutting and back cutting. This adds to the versatility of the staggered tooth keyseat cutter, where one singular tool can be indexed axially within a slot to expand the slot to a specific uncommon dimension. This can save space in a machinist’s magazine and reduce machine time by eliminating the need to swap to a new tool.

Increased Feed Rates

Due to the unique geometry of a Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutter, chips evacuate efficiently and at a faster rate than that of a Straight Flute Keyseat Cutter. The unique flutes of Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutters are a combination of right-and-left-hand shear flutes, but both types are right-hand cutting. This results in the tool’s teeth alternating between upcut and downcut. Chip packing and chip recutting is less of a concern with running this tool, and results in increased chip loads compared to that of a standard keyseat with the same number of flutes. Because of this, the tool can account for chiploads of about 10% higher than the norm, resulting in heightened feed rates and shorter cycle times overall.

Better Part Finish

Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutters have “teeth”, or flutes, that are ground at an angle creating a shear flute geometry. This geometry minimizes chip recutting, chip dragging and reduces the force needed to cut into the material. Chip recutting and dragging are minimized because chips are evacuated out of the top and bottom of the head on the side of the cutter that is not engaged in the material. Shear flutes also reduce vibrations that can lead to chatter and poor finish. By minimizing cutting forces, vibration, and chatter, a machinist can expect a better part finish.

staggered tooth keyseat cutter

Image courtesy of @edc_machining

Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutter Diverse Product Offering

On top of the higher performance one will experience when using the Stagger Tooth Keyseats, there are also multiple options available with various combinations to suit multiple machining needs. This style is offered in a square and corner radius profile which helps if a fillet or sharp corner is needed. There are also multiple cutter diameters ranging from 1/8” to 5/8”. The increased diameter comes with an increase of radial depth of cut, allowing deeper slots to be achievable. Within the most popular cutter diameters, ¼”, 3/8”, and ½” there are also deep slotting options with even greater radial depth of cuts for increased slot depths. On top of the diameters and radii, there are also multiple cutter widths to choose from to create different slots in one go. Finally, an uncoated and AlTiN coatings are available to further increase tool life and performance depending on the material that is being cut.

Opt for a Smoother Operation

A Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutter adds versatility to a tool magazine. It can be indexed axially to expand slots to make multiple widths, allowing machinists to progress operations in a more efficient manner where tool changes are not required. Further, this tool will help to reduce harmonics and chatter, as well as minimize recutting. This works to create a smoother operation with less force on the cutter, resulting in a better finish compared to a Standard Keyseat Cutter.

For more information on Harvey Tool Staggered Tooth Keyseat Cutters and its applications, visit Harvey Tool’s Keyseat Cutter page.

B&R Custom Machining- Featured Customer

B&R Custom Machining is a rapidly expanding aerospace machine shop located in Ontario, Canada, focused primarily on aerospace and military/defense manufacturing. Over the past 17 years, B&R has grown from a 5 person shop with a few manual mills and lathes, into one of Canada’s most highly respected manufacturing facilities, with nearly 40 employees and 21 precision CNC machines.

B&R focuses on quality assurance and constant improvement, mastering the intimacies of metal cutting and maintaining the highest levels of quality through their unique shop management philosophies. They seek to consistently execute on clear contracts through accurate delivery, competitive price, and high quality machined components.

We talked with Brad Jantzi, Co-Founder and Technical Manager of B&R Custom Machining, to learn about how he started in the industry, his experience with High Efficiency Milling, what he looks for most in a cutting tool, and more!

B&R Custom machining

Can you tell us a little bit about how B&R Custom Machining started, and a little background about yourself and the company?

My brother (Ryan Jantzi, CEO/Co-Founder) and I started working in manufacturing back in 2001, when we were just 20/21 years old. We had 5 employees (including ourselves), a few manual mills and lathes, and we were wrapping our parts in newspaper for shipping. We took over from a preexisting shop and assumed their sales and machines.

We bought our first CNC machine in 2003, and immediately recognized the power of CNC and the opportunities it could open up for us. Now, we have 21 CNC machines, 38 employees, and more requests for work than we can keep up with, which is a good thing for the business. We are constantly expanding our team to elevate the business and take on even more work, and are currently hiring for multiple positions if anyone in Ontario is looking for some challenging and rewarding work!

What kind of CNC machines are you guys working with?

Right now we have a lot of Okuma and Matsuura machines, many of which have 5 axis capabilities, and all of them with high RPM spindles. In fact, our “slowest” machine runs at 15k RPM, with our fastest running at 46k. One of our high production machines is our Matsuura LX160, which has the 46k RPM spindle. We use a ton of Harvey Tool and Helical product on that machine and really get to utilize the RPMs.

B&R Custom Machining

What sort of material are you cutting?

We work with Aluminum predominantly, but also with a lot of super alloys like Invar, Kovar, Inconel, Custom 455 Stainless, and lots of Titanium. Some of those super alloys are really tricky stuff to machine. Once we learn about them and study them, we keep a recorded database of information to help us dial in parameters. Our head programmer/part planner keeps track of all that information, and our staff will frequently reference old jobs for new parts.

Sounds like a great system you guys have in place. How did B&R Custom Machining get into aerospace manufacturing?

It is a bit of a funny story actually. Just about 12 years ago we were contacted by someone working at Comdev, which is close to our shop, who was looking to have some parts made. We started a business relationship with him, and made him his parts. He was happy with the work, and so we eventually got involved in his company’s switch division and started to make more and more aerospace parts.

aerospace machining

We immediately saw the potential of aerospace manufacturing, and it promoted where we wanted to go with CNC machining, so it was a natural fit. It really was a case of being in the right place at the right time and seizing the moment. If an opportunity comes up and you aren’t ready for it, you miss it. You have to be hungry enough to see an opportunity, and confident enough to grab it, while also being competent enough to handle the request. So, we took advantage of what we were given, and we grew and went from there.

Who are some of the major players who you work with?

We have great relationships with Honeywell, MDA Brampton, and MDA Quebec. We actually worked on parts for a Mars Rover with MDA that was commissioned by the Canadian Space Agency, which was really cool to be a part of.

Working with large companies like that means quality is key. Why is high quality tool performance important to you?

High quality and superior tool performance is huge. Aside from cutting conditions, there are two quick things that cause poor performance on a tool: tool life and consistency of the tool quality. One without the other means nothing. We all can measure tool life pretty readily, and there is a clear advantage that some tools have over others, but inconsistent quality can sneak up on you and cause trouble. If you have a tool manufacturer that is only producing a quality tool even 95% of the time, that might seem ok, but that means that 5% of the time you suffer something wrong on the machine. Many times, you won’t know where that trouble is coming from. This causes you to pause the machine, investigate, source the problem, and then ultimately switch the tool and create a new program. It becomes an ordeal. Sometimes it is not as simple as manually adjusting the feed knob, especially when you need to rely on it as a “proven program” the next time around.

So, say the probability of a shortcoming on a machine is “x” with one brand of tooling, but is half of that with a brand like Harvey Tool. Sure, the Harvey Tool product might be 10-20% higher in upfront cost, but that pales in comparison to buying cheaper tools and losing time and money due to machine downtime caused by tool failure. The shop rate for an average machine is right around $100/hour, so machine downtime is much more expensive than the added cost of a quality tool.

B&R Custom machining

Inconsistent tool quality can be extremely dangerous to play around with, even outside of machine downtime. We create based on a specific tool and a certain level of expected performance. If that tool cannot be consistent, we now jeopardize an expensive part. The machine never went down, but the part is no good because we programmed based on consistency in tool quality. Again, the cost of scrapped parts heavily outweighs the upfront cost of quality tooling. Tooling is a low cost of what we do here, but poor tooling can cost us thousands versus a few dollars more for quality tools. Too many people focus on the upfront cost, and don’t look downstream through the rest of the process to see how poor quality tooling can affect your business in a much bigger way. We get to see the whole picture because I am involved from cradle to grave, gaining feedback and knowledge along the way.

That’s great feedback Brad, and I think it is important for people to understand what you have laid out here. Speaking of tool performance, have you guys been using High Efficiency Milling techniques in the shop?

Absolutely. We feel that we are on the front edge of efficient milling. We are quite capable of all the latest techniques, as our programmers are well-versed and up to date. For our larger production work, we have programs dialed in that allow us to push the tools to their limits and significantly cut down our cycle times.

What advice would you have for others who are interested in High Efficiency Milling?

Make sure you are smart about using HEM. If we have one-off parts, particularly expensive ones, that do not have time restraints, we want to make sure we have a safe toolpath that will get us the result we want (in terms of quality and cutting security), rather than pushing the thresholds and taking extra time to program the HEM toolpaths. HEM makes total sense for large production runs, but make sure you know when to, and when not to use these techniques to get the most out of HEM.

B&R Custom machining

Have you been using Machining Advisor Pro in your shop when you run Helical end mills?

We have been, and it makes for a great point of reference for the Helical end mills. It has become a part of our new employee training, teaching them about speeds and feeds, how hard they can push the Helical tools, and where the safe zones are. Our more experienced guys also frequent it for new situations where they have no data. Machining Advisor Pro helps to verify what we thought we knew, or helps us get the confidence to start planning for a new job.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist, or someone looking to take the #PlungeIntoMachining for the first time, what would it be?

Learn the intimacies of metal cutting. Get ultra-familiar with the results of what is actually happening with your tool, your setup, your part, and your machine. As well, don’t be limited to thinking “it sounds good,” or “it’s going good so far, so that must be acceptable.” In order to push the tools and confirm they are performing well and making money, you need to identify and understand where the threshold of failure is, and back off the right amount. This doesn’t end here though. Cutting conditions change as the tools, holders, machines, and parts change. Learning the nuances of this fluctuating environment and adapting accordingly is essential. Verify your dimensions, mitigate against risk, and control the variables.

Also, get intimate with what causes tools to succeed and fail, and keep a log of it for reference. Develop a passion for cutting; don’t just punch in and punch out each shift. Here at B&R, we are looking for continuous improvement, and employees who can add value. Don’t stand around all day with your arms folded, but keep constant logs of what’s going on and always be learning and thinking of how to understand what is happening, and improve on it. That is what makes a great machinist, and a successful shop.

B&R custom machining

Tool Deflection & Its Remedies

Every machinist must be aware of tool deflection, as too much deflection can lead to catastrophic failure in the tool or workpiece. Deflection is the displacement of an object under a load causing curvature and/or fracture.

For Example: When looking at a diving board at rest without the pressure of a person’s weight upon it, the board is straight. But as the diver progresses down further to the end of the board, it bends further. Deflection in tooling can be thought of in a similar way.

Deflection Can Result In:

  • Shortened tool life and/or tool breakage
  • Subpar surface finish
  • Part dimensional inaccuracies

Tool Deflection Remedies

Minimize Overhang

Overhang refers to the distance a tool is sticking out of the tool holder. Simply, as overhang increases, the tool’s likelihood of deflection increases. The larger distance a tool hangs out of the holder, the less shank there is to grip, and depending on the shank length, this could lead to harmonics in the tool that can cause fracture. Simply put, For optimal working conditions, minimize overhang by chucking the tool as much as possible.

extended reach tool

Image Source: @NuevaPrecision

Long Flute vs. Long Reach

Another way to minimize deflection is having a full grasp on the differences between a long flute and a long reach tool. The reason for such a difference in rigidity between the two is the core diameter of the tool. The more material, the more rigid the tool; the shorter the length of flute, the more rigid the tool and the longer the tool life. While each tooling option has its benefits and necessary uses, using the right option for an operation is important.

The below charts illustrate the relationship between force on the tip and length of flute showing how much the tool will deflect if only the tip is engaged while cutting. One of the key ways to get the longest life out of your tool is by increasing rigidity by selecting the smallest reach and length of cut on the largest diameter tool.

tool deflection

 

tool deflection

 

When to Opt for a Long Reach Tool

Reached tools are typically used to remove material where there is a gap that the shank would not fit in, but a noncutting extension of the cutter diameter would. This length of reach behind the cutting edge is also slightly reduced from the cutter diameter to prevent heeling (rubbing of noncutting surface against the part). Reached tools are one of the best tools to add to a tool crib because of their versatility and tool life.

 

When to Opt for a Long Flute Tool

Long Flute tools have longer lengths of cut and are typically used for either maintaining a seamless wall on the side of a part, or within a slot for finishing applications. The core diameter is the same size throughout the cutting length, leading to more potential for deflection within a part. This possibly can lead to a tapered edge if too little of the cutting edge is engaged with a high feed rate. When cutting in deep slots, these tools are very effective. When using HEM, they are also very beneficial due to their chip evacuation capabilities that reached tools do not have.

 

Deflection & Tool Core Strength

Diameter is an important factor when calculating deflection. Machinists oftentimes use the cutter diameter in the calculation of long flute tools, when in actuality the core diameter (shown below) is the necessary dimension. This is because the fluted portion of a tool has an absence of material in the flute valleys. For a reached tool, the core diameter would be used in the calculation until its reached portion, at which point it transitions to the neck diameter. When changing these values, it can lower deflection to a point where it is not noticeable for the reached tool but could affect critical dimensions in a long flute tool.

Deflection Summarized

Tool deflection can cause damage to your tool and scrap your part if not properly accounted for prior to beginning a job. Be sure to minimize the distance from the tool holder to the tip of the tool to keep deflection to a minimum. For more information on ways to reduce tool deflection in your machining, view Diving into Depth of Cut.

Contouring Considerations

What is Contouring?

Contouring a part means creating a fine finish on an irregular or uneven surface. Dissimilar to finishing a flat or even part, contouring involves the finishing of a rounded, curved, or otherwise uniquely shaped part.

Contouring & 5-Axis Machining

5-axis machines are particularly suitable for contouring applications. Because contouring involves the finishing of an intricate or unique part, the multiple axes of movement in play with 5-axis Machining allow for the tool to access tough-to-reach areas, as well as follow intricate tool paths.

 Recent Contouring Advances

Advanced CAM software can now write the G-Code (the step-by-step program needed to create a finished part) for a machinists application, which has drastically simplified contouring applications. Simply, rather than spend several hours writing the code for an application, the software now handles this step. Despite these advances, most young machinists are still required to write their own G-Codes early on in their careers to gain valuable familiarity with the machines and their abilities. CAM software, for many, is a luxury earned with time.

Benefits of Advanced CAM Software

1. Increased Time Savings
Because contouring requires very specific tooling movements and rapidly changing cutting parameters, ridding machinists of the burden of writing their own complex code can save valuable prep time and reduce machining downtime.

2. Reduced Cycle Times
Generated G-Codes can cut several minutes off of a cycle time by removing redundancies within the application. Rather than contouring an area of the part that does not require it, or has been machined already, the CAM Software locates the very specific areas that require machining time and attention to maximize efficiency.

3. Improved Consistency
CAM Programs that are packaged with CAD Software such as SolidWorks are typically the best in terms of consistency and ability to handle complex designs. While the CAD Software helps a machinist generate the part, the CAM Program tells a machine how to make it.

Contouring Tips

Utilize Proper Cut Depths

Prior to running a contouring operation, an initial roughing cut is taken to remove material in steps on the Z-axis so to leave a limited amount of material for the final contouring pass. In this step, it’s pivotal to leave the right amount of material for contouring — too much material for the contouring pass can result in poor surface finish or a damaged part or tool, while too little material can lead to prolonged cycle time, decreased productivity and a sub par end result.

The contouring application should remove from .010″ to 25% of the tool’s cutter diameter. During contouring, it’s possible for the feeds to decrease while speeds increases, leading to a much smoother finish. It is also important to keep in mind that throughout the finishing cut, the amount of engagement between the tool’s cutting edge and the part will vary regularly – even within a single pass.

Use Best Suited Tooling

Ideal tool selection for contouring operations begins by choosing the proper profile of the tool. A large radius or ball profile is very often used for this operation because it does not leave as much evidence of a tool path. Rather, they effectively smooth the material along the face of the part. Undercutting End Mills, also known as lollipop cutters, have spherical ball profiles that make them excellent choices for contouring applications. Harvey Tool’s 300° Reduced Shank Undercutting End Mill, for example, features a high flute count to benefit part finish for light cut depths, while maintaining the ability to reach tough areas of the front or back side of a part.

Fact-Check G-Code

While advanced CAM Software will create the G-Code for an application, saving a machinist valuable time and money, accuracy of this code is still vitally important to the overall outcome of the final product. Machinists must look for issues such as wrong tool call out, rapids that come too close to the material, or even offsets that need correcting. Failure to look G-Code over prior to beginning machining can result in catastrophic machine failure and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of damage.

Inserting an M01 – or a notation to the machine in the G-Code to stop and await machinist approval before moving on to the next step – can help a machinist to ensure that everything is approved with a next phase of an operation, or if any redundancy is set to occur, prior to continuation.

Contouring Summarized

Contouring is most often used in 5-axis machines as a finishing operation for uniquely shaped or intricate parts. After an initial roughing pass, the contouring operation – done most often with Undercutting End Mills or Ball End Mills, removes anywhere from .010″ to 25% of the cutter diameter in material from the part to ensure proper part specifications are met and a fine finish is achieved. During contouring, cut only at recommended depths, ensure that G-Code is correct, and use tooling best suited for this operation.

Aspex CNC – Featured Customer

Aspex CNC is a CNC machine shop based out of Poway, California. They offer prototype turning and milling, as well as production level machining. Their quick turnaround times and premium quality have garnered them some serious recognition in the manufacturing industry. Aspex CNC is just one of the four businesses that Gary Colle Jr. currently owns, but they are an essential part of his business ecosystem, creating parts for the other three product-based companies while also offering machining services to outside customers.

We talked to Gary about his unique experiences in the industry, his thoughts on 5 axis machining, his advice for trying High Efficiency Milling, and more!

Tell us a bit about how you got started in machining, your businesses, and how Aspex CNC was formed.

It is a bit of an interesting story. I got started in manufacturing because my father designed, developed, and manufactured one of the first lines of Wheelchair Accessible Vehicle lifts, which allow people in wheelchairs to easily get in and out of their vehicles. The company was called GoldenBoy Mobility and is still one of the four business I currently own and operate today.

At a young age, I was working in my father’s shop, answering phones and doing odd jobs as young as the age of 10. When I got to high school, I worked after school and during the summers in a more hands-on position, welding parts, cutting up cars, and helping on the shop floor. This really inspired my love for metalworking at a young age.

goldenboy mobility

My dad used to let me mess around in the shop at night, so I started welding my own parts and trying to learn as much as I could. One day, someone came in and asked if I could create a “tuna tower” (an accessory for wakeboarding/water skiing) for their boat. I relented at first, but eventually gave in and welded all the parts together for him. After I made that one, word got around that I could create these at night. I started to advertise a little bit locally, and people started ordering more and more. That summer, I ended up making 50 of these towers and got noticed by a couple of big distributors. Scaling up like that made it necessary to outsource some of our parts to local machine shops, which is where I discovered machining. I had very little prior knowledge of machining, but once I stepped into my first machine shop, I was blown away.

As that business grew even larger (now known as DBG Concepts), I needed more parts and needed them faster. We outgrew the local shops and purchased our first machine, a Fadal 4020 CNC Mill, from a local machine salesman, who also helped teach me the ropes. I learned a lot in those first 6 months about machining.

Business kept ramping up, and my father eventually retired and I took over GoldenBoy Mobility. With all the extra parts we needed, we kept machining things in-house, and buying more mills. Eventually, machining became an even larger part of the business than either DBG Concepts or GoldenBoy Mobility, so we formed Aspex CNC to move our machining out of the product line and more into prototype work and production machining for other business. We still machine most of the parts for DBG and GoldenBoy in-house, but we are doing much more for outside sources than we used to.

What sort of machines do you use in your shop?

Right now, we are a Haas-only shop. We currently have eight Haas machines in our shop. Our lineup consists of a couple of lathes (ST10 and ST30), a Super Mini Mill, and five CNC Mills (VF2SS, VF2SSYT, VF4SS, VF5SS, and UMC750SS), with another UMC750 on the way!

aspex cnc

Which materials do you most often work with in your shop?

We work with a lot of the common materials, 6061/7075 Aluminum, 1018/1045 Steel, 303/304/17-4ph Stainless, as well as plastics like Acetal, UHMW, HDPE, and PVC.

How has your experience been with 5 axis machining?

If you don’t keep up with technology, you won’t be able to keep up with business, so learning multi-axis machining was a no-brainer for us. We first started with a Haas HRT210 4th axis rotary, and began to play with that. Over the next two years, we learned everything we could about multi-axis machining and made the decision to upgrade to a 5 axis machine. We actually went to IMTS that year to talk to manufacturers and find the perfect machine for us and ended up sticking with Haas because of their support platform and educational resources.

5 axis can be hard, but there are a lot of tools out there (HSM Works from Autodesk being one) that can help you learn. It does require a little more upfront work and discipline, but it eliminates a lot of setup time, creates new opportunities for our shop, and has been really good for us from a business standpoint. A big part of our business is machining one-off parts, so the 5 axis machine allows for a faster turnaround time for those odd shapes and sizes we come across.

5 axis machining

You are very active on social media promoting your business. How has the online machinist community helped your business?

Honestly, even though it can become a bit of a distraction at times, using social media to share our work and partner up with companies like Harvey Tool and Helical has been a lot of fun. We are still young in the social media space, so we haven’t seen a massive impact yet, but the best is yet to come. We have received a few bites here and there which has led to work, but as with everything, it takes some time. We expect a lot of growth this year as we work on more really neat projects and continue to get our name out there. As we grow, the opportunities are going to come.

aspex cnc

What are some of the coolest projects you have ever worked on?

Unfortunately, we can’t talk about most of the work we do, due to customer confidentiality, but we did just do a project for the State of California building a training vehicle for their driver’s education program. We designed and built a dual steering system that gave the driver’s trainer a second steering wheel on the passenger side of the car to be used during training. Another job we just finished up was some parts for the new Raiders football stadium in Las Vegas. They contacted us in a pinch and needed them in two days, and we made it happen. It is pretty cool to know you played a part in a huge project like that.

Aspex CNC also does a lot of work with racing/off-road vehicle companies, often machining parts for the chassis and suspension components. We have worked on projects for companies like Scarbo Performance, ID Designs, TSCO Racing and a whole list of others.

You can only use one machine for the rest of your life. Do you go with a CNC Milling machine or the Lathe?

I would hate to have to choose between them, but it is 100% the CNC Mill. I love ripping around with end mills and working with the 5 axis machines. It is mind blowing what these things are capable of.

Why is manufacturing products in America important to you?

Growing up in the industry which I did while working under my father (building wheelchair accessible vehicles), we had a lot of customers who were veterans coming back from Vietnam or Desert Storm who had been injured overseas and needed extra accommodations, which we could provide for them. The veterans I have worked with made me so patriotic with their stories and courage. We also get to work on a lot of projects with the US Department of Veteran’s Affairs, which is putting money back into the American economy by supporting companies like ours and contracting us to make these vehicles. It only makes sense that we employ more people here and avoid sending things overseas to support those who have supported us.

aspex cnc

Do you utilize High Efficiency Milling (HEM) techniques in your shop? What advice do you have for those who are getting started with HEM?

Absolutely, all the time!

The biggest thing is listening to your tool manufacturer for recommendations and then cut those in half to start. From there, work your way up until you are comfortable. Just because the tool can handle it doesn’t necessarily mean your machine, work holding and or set up can, so I would advise people to walk before you run when it comes to HEM.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist ready to take the #PlungeIntoMachining, what would it be?

Be conservative and establish good habits from the start. You can get more aggressive as your career starts to take off, but don’t run out and try to run the biggest and baddest machines on day one and try to cut corners. You need to learn what is behind machining; you can get easily lost in all the technology that is available, but you need to understand the core science behind it first. Take it slow, because if you go too fast, you might miss something important along the way.

Is there anything else you would like to share with the In The Loupe community?

The best thing is building relationships with companies like Haas, Harvey Tool, and Helical. Not only do they provide great service and support for you, but it quickly becomes a mutually beneficial relationship. As we give feedback to the tool and machine manufacturers, and even our metal supplier, it helps them improve their products, which in turn allows our shop to increase our production and efficiency.

Also, having a good team with good people makes all the difference. No matter how many machines you have and how automated you get, you still need good people on your side. I would put my guys up against any other machine shop out there in terms of skill, and it is a big part of what has made our business so successful.

aspex cnc


Would you like to be considered for a future “Featured Customer” blog? Click here to submit your information.

Anderson Prototypes – Featured Customer

Anderson Prototypes is a custom machine shop in Port Moody, British Columbia. Working with everything from Titanium to Bamboo, they create mechanical mechanisms and working prototypes of new technology. By applying 25 years of experience with manual and CNC machinery, they craft amazing parts, some even bordering on impossible. The team at Anderson Prototypes works in a variety of industries, ranging from large-scale prototype work to small batch production, machine repair, and even movie and TV props.

Jim Anderson, a 30 year veteran of the manufacturing industry, is the Founder and Owner of Anderson Prototypes. We caught up with Jim and talked to him about some of the “impossible” projects his team likes to take, his experiences in the film industry, and his advice for the aspiring machinist.

Tell us a bit about your shop, how you got started, and what sort of products you manufacture.

I started in machining in 1985, as a full-time student in a machining class at a local community college. I spent years working in jobbing shops, plastic mold injection shops, and specialized start-up companies, scratch building a range of things from high-speed water “pouch” filling machines to hydrogen fuel-cells. Today I work with a wide range of clients including 3 submarine companies, a military contractor, companies that use custom built or modified ROVs and drones, food packaging companies, production companies needing film and TV props, and more.

What made you get into machining?

I have always been an actively creative person, and I enjoyed wood and machine shop in high school. I found a creative outlet for my talents to build and fix things inside the machine shop environment. I continue to study machines and items, to understand how they were made, and how it could be made better or simplified.

anderson prototypes

What is your favorite part of this profession?

I always enjoy creating something for a client that they have been dreaming of, sometimes for years. They come to me with a sketch on a napkin or a verbal idea, and I turn that dream into reality. When they come to pick it up and see it for the first time, the emotions are tremendous!

What sort of machines do you use in your shop?

I have 2 Tormach 1100 CNC mills, one 4 axis and the other 3 axis, a Sherline 2000, 4 axis CNC mill, a Frankenstein CNC lathe with a 8 station tool changer for small work, a Milltronics ML-17 CNC lathe, a Colchester Student Engine Lathe, and a smaller manual milling machine. I also have drill presses, tapping heads and tons of specialized fixturing and work holding devices, as well as a 60 ton hydraulic press and the specialized equipment that comes with it.

micro machining

Which materials do you work with in your shop?

Just about everything. Lots of plastics, PEEK, Delrin and Acrylic, aluminum, steels, stainless steels, carbon fiber, different woods, laminates, and more.

What sets Anderson Prototypes apart from the competition?

We often take on jobs that other shops won’t, due to our team’s large vision. We stand behind every piece we make and have zero returned items to date. Embodying both old-school traditions and cutting-edge technology, Anderson Prototypes believes that “Impossible is just an Opinion”. We work with a project from the very beginning to the time it is up and running at the client’s facility. We work with building very small detailed machines to unique and weird items that someone dreamed up and could not find anyone able to make. We also love to give back to the community. We have sponsored local high school and university students in competitions, and we have played a part in the Maker Community since Day One. We also made and donated a doggy wheelchair to a dog in need (YouTube), and we sponsor a local softball league.

How did you get into the entertainment/prop business?

Vancouver has a huge movie industry, and there are many people in my network that work in the industry. The need for various props, new equipment, and repairs can go up and down as movies are being filmed. The first job I did (I think), was for a movie called Space Buddies, the 4th or 5th entry in the Air Bud movie series. I made the Doggles (dog goggles), that the dog is wearing on the DVD cover. Most movies require a Non-Disclosure Agreements before any work is done, so I can’t talk about much, but I have made my impact on the screen, behind the scenes, and even live on stage. I also did a major prop for an Australian TV show that was apparently popular down under, so you never know where this work will take you!

micro machined

Who is the most famous contact that you have worked on a project with?

I have met many directors and producers of large budget films and TV shows. Unfortunately, because of the Non-Disclosure Agreements, I cannot mention any names.

Why is high-quality tool performance important to you?

I buy all my tooling from North America. I am lucky enough to have a solid carbide tooling manufacturer 5 miles from my shop, so I get quality endmills, made to order. When I need something specialized, Harvey is the only company I go to. When a tool does more than I expect, I make more money and have less stress. I count on that and become a return customer. For example, I used a .018″ Miniature End Mill (#73018-C3) on some acrylic parts I was making. There were 40 parts in total, all around the size of a stamp, with lots of tiny details, high tolerances, and very small features. I had the machine running at 15,500 RPM for 3 weeks, and I only broke one tool in that entire run. What a great tool!

What is your favorite process to work on as a machinist?

I really enjoy making something I have never worked on before, that new challenge. Often it seems that I am designing new items now more than ever. I have to do things that are not being done commercially and I stand behind it. So I might run the manual lathe, the CNC mill and then the CNC lathe on one part. I enjoy the variety.

anderson prototypes

Why is manufacturing your products in North America important to you?

American and Canadian-made products are very important to me. I purchase North American-made products like steel and aluminum, and bearings and fasteners all of kinds. I also access services locally, such as laser cutting, anodizing and powder coating, to support these local businesses. I feel its very important to the customer making the purchase that these are products my neighbors are helping to build.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist ready to take the #PlungeIntoMachining, what would it be?

Take the time to take an accredited machine shop training course, like I did. It will give you all the groundwork to understand the real world of machining. I know a few fellas with small CNCs that can’t make a living because they don’t understand the depth of set-ups or work holding, for example, because they never learned from an expert. They can’t make parts fast enough, they charge 1/2 of what I do, and it takes then 3 times as long, so they simply can’t compete with me. Just be aware that it doesn’t happen overnight; I was a Journeyman Machinist for over 30 years, and still ask for help from my mentors occasionally. Oh, and find yourself a quality machine. Find a good used HAAS, or OKK, or something made in the US, UK or Europe. Your clients will respect you more and it will work longer and more accurately.

Is there anything else you would like to share with the In The Loupe community?

I am grateful for the education I have received from the many journeyman machinists, engineers, mechanics, electricians, pilots, sea captains and more who I have worked beside in my years. I am happy to share and offer problem-solving, sometimes for free, other times at consultation rates. When a young eager person asks me a question, I do the best I can to answer it in a way that benefits them long term. Sometimes they don’t like the answer, but I tell them to come back in 6 months and tell me how it went. That’s when the rubber hits the road.

anderson prototypes


Would you like to be considered for a future “Featured Customer” blog? Click here to submit your information.

Photos courtesy of Anderson Prototypes.

Koenig Knives – Featured Customer

Koenig Knives is a fast-growing, Idaho-based knife manufacturer, recognized by many as one of the premier knife-making companies in the market today. Bill Koenig started the company back in 2013, using his off-days  in between his long shifts working the oil fields in North Dakota to build the business. After 3 years of exploring the craft, building a presence in the market, and saving money, Koenig was able to lease a work space, buy his first Haas machine, and start manufacturing his knives right here in America. The Koenig Knives team has now expanded to include four more employees: Krista, the Director of Operations, Cameron, the Lead Machinist, Doug in Assembly, and Todd, who works on finishing. Koenig Knives is quickly becoming known for their focus on quality, innovation, and consistency, backing all of their knives with a lifetime warranty.

We talked with both Bill and Cameron for this latest Featured Customer profile, exploring the world of CNC knifemaking, how they use High Efficiency Milling (HEM) to improve their machining efficiency, and the effect that the machining community on social media has had on their business.

koenig knives

Tell us about your business and how you got started.

Bill: Koenig Knives was started in 2013. I have always been passionate about knives, starting when I was in the Boy Scouts as a young boy. This passion turned to obsession and I went from a collector/enthusiast to a knife manufacturer in December of 2013 when we released our first batch of knives.

Originally we used an off-site manufacturer, who we worked closely with from 2013 until mid-2016. We continued to grow rapidly, and that is when I made the decision to start handling all manufacturing ourselves. We took delivery of our first machine, a Haas VF2SS, at the end of 2016. The rest is history.

What made you get into machining?

Cameron: I started as a CNC operator at an assault rifle manufacturer. After seeing raw material being machined into a beautiful, functioning gun, I decided to make machining my career and I have never looked back.

What sort of machines do you use in your shop?

Cameron: We currently have two Haas VF2SS machines and an Okamoto.

Which materials do you work with in your shop?

Cameron: We work with wide range of materials, including Grade 5 Titanium, Timascus, Damascus, Carbon Fiber, Micarta, Tool Steel , 6061 Aluminum , CTS-XHP, CTS-204P, and 416 Stainless Steel.

helical chamfer mill

What sets Koenig Knives apart from the competition?

Bill: We are often asked what category we would place ourselves in, whether it be production, custom etc. I always hesitate when answering because I can’t think of a way to categorize Koenig Knives besides “high end production with custom offerings.” We have a high end production line, but we also offer the ability to order your own customized version of one of our knives. This is something that is not too common in the industry. Quality, customer service and innovation are our main goals as a company, and we feel we have done a great job hitting on all three.

What is the most challenging part of the knife-making machining process?

Cameron: I think what makes the machining process unique with our product is the fact that we use some of the most cutting edge steel alloys for our blades. It becomes more challenging because these steel alloys are constantly advancing. Finding the perfect harmony of machining parameters for some of the relatively newer steels can be a challenge at times.

Why is high quality tool performance important to you?

Cameron: When part finishes are extremely crucial and there’s a high quantity of parts needed, having high quality tooling like Helical is essential. Helical tools help us maintain a much higher machining efficiency because of the outstanding tool life, while also achieving more aggressive run times. In addition, we are able to consistently keep high tolerances, resulting in a better final product.

koenig knives

What is your favorite process to work on as a machinist?

Cameron: I love everything about this career, except cleaning the coolant tank. I could do without that…

Koenig Knives has a great Instagram following. Tell us more about how the machinist social media community has helped grow your business.

Cameron: The machinist social media community has helped us connect with various knife makers all over the world. We learn from each other by sharing techniques and helpful tips, and we inspire each other by sharing our creations online. The machinist community on Instagram has been great – we would recommend any business, even the smallest job shops, to take a look at starting their own accounts.

Why is manufacturing your products in America important to you?

Bill: Buying American has always been very important to me for many reasons. The sense of supporting fellow American workers was instilled in me at a young age.  When I started Koenig Knives, I wanted to make sure everything from the screws to the boxes was made in the US.

koenig knives

Tell us about your favorite project that Helical helped to create.

Cameron: Machining the Arius blades (pictured above) has been my favorite on-going project. Once we switched to all Helical tools, it drastically improved our run times and blade finish, and created an incredible final product.

Have you used High Efficiency Milling techniques in your shop?

Cameron: Absolutely! We couldn’t do without HEM!

What advice do you have for other machinists who want to try High Efficiency Milling?

Cameron: Machining Advisor Pro is an absolute game changer when it comes to HEM, as well as for general machining solutions. The technical milling strategies and information that Helical makes available give machinists everything they need to be successful. When a machinist has a full understanding of what is taking place and what is needed to efficiently and correctly cut material, the sky is the limit.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist ready to take the #PlungeIntoMachining, what would it be?

Cameron: With machining technology advancing at the amazing rate that it is, there is no better time to become a machinist. It is a trade that is constantly improving, and offers so many opportunities for young people.

koenig knives


Would you like to be considered for a future “Featured Customer” blog? Click here to submit your information.

Photos courtesy of Koenig Knives.

Weiss Watches – Featured Customer

Weiss Watch Company is restoring prestige to American watchmaking. They design and build timepieces with mechanical movements by hand in Los Angeles, California. Each timepiece is individually assembled in America. Their practices merge historical techniques and modern technological advances, with every process perfected by a Swiss-trained and certified American watchmaker. Weiss Watch Company strives to increase the percentage of domestic sourcing with each edition, and is the only company resurrecting industry practices that have not been active in the United States for decades.

Grant Hughson is a Manufacturing Engineer at Weiss Watch Company. Grant “lives and breathes” manufacturing, currently working in his spare time as a Manufacturing Instructor at Saddleback College. We spoke to Grant for this latest featured customer blog about the watch-making process, his experiences in the industry, and his thoughts on the state of American manufacturing.

weiss watches

What made you get into machining?

I grew up with a love for finely machined products, like watches, guns, and fishing gear. I also loved car racing, and a lot of the modifications on the cars are machined from various materials. So, from a young age, I was obsessed with the work that went into these products, and knew I wanted to be a part of the manufacturing industry.

What is your favorite part of this profession?

I love the entire manufacturing process. It always starts with a dream, or an idea. Then you take that idea and turn it into a drawing, and soon after, you’ll be modeling it. The best part is when you go to actually machine the part, and watch your original idea turn into a tangible part or product.

watchmaking

What is the most challenging part of the watch-making process?

There are a few challenging parts of the watch-making process, starting with the super-tight tolerances. Surface finish is also extremely important, and can be difficult to nail. Many surface finishes in watchmaking are visual, so roughness can be deceiving. We also were forced to design all of our workholding from scratch, as nothing currently existed in the market that would work for our machining process.

You mentioned your tight tolerances. What tolerances do you typically work in?

My tolerances are in the tenths. The holes that hold the jewels (watch bearings) are +0.0002, -0.

weiss watches

What sort of machines do you have in your shop?

We have a 3 axis vertical milling machine and a 9 axis Swiss style lathe in the shop.

What type of materials do you work in?

We work in steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass, and titanium every day. It is a wide variety, but it keeps things interesting!

How have Harvey Tool products impacted your overall shop performance?

Harvey Tools have been great tools for me. I do a lot of prototype work, and constantly need odd sized tools or specialty profiles to finish a job. Thankfully, the Harvey Tool selection is HUGE. Somehow you guys always have what I need!

Tell us about your favorite project that Harvey Tools helped to create.

I love what I do everyday, so my favorite project is an ongoing one; making watches!

watchmaking tools

Why is high quality tool performance important to you?

It’s a must! Tool to tool accuracy and performance is vital in this business, especially with our extremely tight tolerances. High quality tools make sure that we get the same performance time after time without needing to scrap parts. This saves us valuable time and money.

What is your favorite process to work on as a machinist?

I really enjoy fixture design. Holding small parts for fixture design is an art! If it’s too tight, they’re smashed. If it’s too loose, see you later; your part is gone!

As a manufacturing engineer, I also enjoy the programming aspect of CNC machining. Being able to program the toolpaths and turn my programming skills into tangible parts is why I got into this business.

weiss watches

If you were stranded on a desert island with only one Harvey Tool or Helical tool, which would it be, and why?

It would have to be the Harvey 1/4″  30° engraving tool. I could mount it to the end of a stick. It would make for a hell of a spear!

Why is manufacturing products in America important to you?

Manufacturing products in America is a crucial part of the success and security of our business. When someone else makes your parts, its not hard for them to make a competing product. Making everything on-site keeps our proprietary information safe.

If you could give one piece of advice to a new machinist ready to take the #PlungeIntoMachining, what would it be?

Ask a lot of questions and never stop learning. It’s not easy but it’s worth it. If you consider yourself a maker or inventor, it’s the only place to be! Manufacturing is awesome, and anyone who tells you different is on the way out. Keep up the good work, and keep manufacturing your products in America!

weiss watches

Would you like to be considered for a future “Featured Customer” blog? Click here to submit your information.

Photos courtesy of Weiss Watch Company.

Introduction to High Efficiency Milling

The following is just one of several blog posts relevant to High Efficiency Milling. To achieve a full understanding of this popular machining method, view any of the additional HEM posts below!

High Speed Machining vs. HEM I How to Combat Chip Thinning I Diving into Depth of Cut I How to Avoid 4 Major Types of Tool Wear I Intro to Trochoidal Milling


High Efficiency Milling (HEM) is a strategy that is rapidly gaining popularity in the metalworking industry. Most CAM packages now offer modules to generate HEM toolpaths, each with their own proprietary name. In these packages, HEM can also be known as Dynamic Milling or High Efficiency Machining, among others. HEM can result in profound shop efficiency, extended tool life, greater performance, and cost savings. High performance end mills designed to achieve higher speeds and feeds will help machinists to reap the full benefits of this popular machining method.

High Efficiency Milling Defined

HEM is a milling technique for roughing that utilizes a lower Radial Depth of Cut (RDOC) and a higher Axial Depth of Cut (ADOC). This spreads wear evenly across the cutting edge, dissipates heat, and reduces the chance of tool failure.

This strategy differs from traditional or conventional milling, which typically calls for a higher RDOC and lower ADOC. Traditional milling causes heat concentrations in one small portion of the cutting tool, expediting the tool wear process. Further, while Traditional Milling call for more axial passes, HEM toolpaths use more passes radially.

For more information on optimizing Depth of Cut in relation to HEM, see Diving into Depth of Cut: Peripheral, Slotting & HEM Approaches.

High Efficiency Milling

Built-In CAM Applications

Machining technology has been advancing with the development of faster, more powerful machines. In order to keep up, many CAM applications have developed built-in features for HEM toolpaths, including Trochoidal Milling, a method of machining used to create a slot wider than the cutting tool’s cutting diameter.

HEM is largely based on the theory surrounding Radial Chip Thinning, or the phenomenon that occurs with varying RDOC, and relates to the chip thickness and feed per tooth. HEM adjusts parameters to maintain a constant load on the tool through the entire roughing operation, resulting in more aggressive material removal rates (MRR). In this way, HEM differs from other high performance toolpaths, which involve different methods for achieving significant MRR.

Virtually any CNC machine can perform HEM – the key is a fast CNC controller. When converting from a regular program to HEM, about 20 lines of HEM code will be written for every line of regular code. A fast processor is needed to look ahead for the code, and keep up with the operation. In addition, advanced CAM software that intelligently manages tool load by adjusting the IPT and RDOC is also needed.

HEM Case Studies

The following example shows the result a machinist had when using a Helical Solutions HEV-5 tool to perform an HEM operation in 17-4PH stainless steel. While performing HEM, this ½” diameter, 5-flute end mill engaged the part just 12% radially, but 100% axially. This machinist was able to reduce tool wear and was able to complete 40 parts with a single tool, versus only 15 with a traditional roughing toolpath.

The effect of HEM on a roughing application can also be seen in the case study below. While machining 6061 aluminum with Helical’s H45AL-C-3, a 1/2″, 3-flute rougher, this machinist was able to finish a part in 3 minutes, versus 11 minutes with a traditional roughing toolpath. One tool was able to make 900 parts with HEM, a boost of more than 150% over the traditional method.

Importance of Tooling to HEM

Generally speaking, HEM is a matter of running the tool – not the tool itself. Virtually every tool can perform HEM, but using tooling built to withstand the rigors of HEM will result in greater success. While you can run a marathon in any type of shoes, you’d likely get the best results and performance from running shoes.

HEM is often regarded as a machining method for larger diameter tooling because of the aggressive MRR of the operation and the fragility of tooling under 1/8” in size. However, miniature tooling can be used to achieve HEM, too.

Using miniature tooling for HEM can create additional challenges that must be understood prior to beginning your operation.

Best Tools for HEM:

  • High flute count for increased MRR.
  • Large core diameter for added strength.
  • Tool coating optimized for the workpiece material for increased lubricity.
  • Variable Pitch/Variable Helix design for reduced harmonics.

Key Takeaways

HEM is a machining operation which continues to grow in popularity in shops worldwide. A milling technique for roughing that utilizes a lower RDOC and higher ADOC than traditional milling, HEM distributes wear evenly across the cutting edge of a tool, reducing heat concentrations and slowing the rate of tool wear. This is especially true in tooling best suited to promote the benefits of HEM.