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Since 1985, Harvey Tool has been providing specialty carbide end mills and cutting tools to the metalworking industry. Today, Harvey Tool is recognized as a leader in its offerings because of an unsurpassed technical expertise and engineering know-how. Click here to shop Harvey Tool products today.
Brinell hardness number (BHN) using a 10-mm 3,000 kgf carbide ball (HBW 10/3000)
Brinell hardness number (BHN) using a 10-mm 500 kgf steel ball (HBS 10/500)
Rockwell C hardness number (using a 150 kgf load)
Rockwell B hardness number (using a 100 kgf load)
The material condition is the form, heat treatment, temper, etc. of the material. Some common forms of heat treatment include:
Keeping an alloy at an elevated temperature for a long period of time to allow precipitation to take place. See also precipitation hardening.
Heating to and holding at a specific temperature and then cooling at a specific rate. Generally used to soften material for cold working. improve machinability, or alter/improve physical and sometimes chemical
Austenitizing a ferrous alloy (heating above the transformation range) and subsequently cooling it in open air to relieve internal stress and provide uniform composition and grain size. Results in a harder, stronger steel than annealing.
Keeping an alloy at an elevated temperature for a long period of time (see aging) to allow the controlled release of constituents (alloying elements) to form precipitate (fine particles separated from the solid solution) clusters which increase the yield strength of the alloy.
Rapidly cooling a metal after heating it above the critical temperature. Usually produces a harder metal in ferrous alloy, while most non-ferrous alloys become softer.
Heating to a temperature below the transformation range for a specific time and then allowing it to cool in open air. Usually performed after hardening to reduce excess hardness and increase toughness (ability to absorb energy and plastically deform without breaking).
Commercially pure grades ( or low alloy nickel) such as Nickel 200 and Nickel 201 have excellent corrosion resistance. Nickel alloys generally contain .38% to 76% nickel. Nickel alloys such as Hastelloy, lnconel, and Wacspaloy are classified as superalloys.
Highest strength-to-weight ratio of all metals with good corrosion resistance as well. High thermal resistance that contributes to poor ma.ch inability.
Generally contains .35% to 65% cobalt. Although not typically as strong as nickel alloys, they retain their strength at higher temperatures.
Used for high temperature applications due to its very high melting point. High strength at elevated temperatures, but tends to be brittle at low temperatures. Poor oxidation resistance.
Gray Cast Iron
Contain flake graphite. Moderate strength, but good machinability and damping capacity. Cannot be worked (forged, extruded, rolled, etc.).
Malleable Cast Iron
Good ductility, strength, and shock resistance (better fracture toughness at low temperatures than nodular irons) . Moderate machinability. Can be shaped through cold working.
Nodular Cast Iron
Contain nodular graphite. Good ductility and shock resistance. Moderate machinability.
Low Carbon Steel
(Also called mild steel) Has less than 0. 3% carbon. Used for components that do not require high strength. Improved machinability is found in the 11xx and 12xx series steels.
Medium Carbon Steel
Has 0.3% to o.6% carbon. Used for components requiring higher strength than low-carbon steels. Improved machinability is found in the 11xx and 12xx series steels.
High Carbon Steel
Has more than o.6% carbon. The higher carbon content results in higher strength, hardness, and wear resistance.
Low Alloy Steel
Contain significant amounts of other alloying elements in addition to carbon. Exhibit improved strength, hardness, toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, hardenability, and hot
hardness (compared to carbon steels).
Specially alloyed steels designed for high strength, impact toughness, and wear resistance. Commonly used for machining and/or forming metals.
Generally contain 32% to 67% iron. This group includes low-expansion steel, maraging steel, and some of the iron-based superalloys.
Wrought Aluminum Alloy
Aluminum alloy “worked” into shape by rolling, extrusion, drawing, forging, etc. High thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance. Excellent machinability.
Cast Aluminum Alloy
Directly casted into final form (sand-casting, die or pressure die casting). Contains high levels of silicon to improve cast ability, resulting in abrasiveness.
Lightest of structural metals. Can be precipitation hardened to improve mechanical properties. Excellent machinability.
High thermal and electrical conductivity. Good corrosion and wear resistance. Includes brass (copper-zinc alloy) and bronze (copper-tin alloy).
(200 and 300 series) Nonmagnetic with excellent corrosion resistance and ductility. Hardened by cold-working (not heat-treatable).
(400 and 500 series) Magnetic with high strength, hardness, fatigue resistance, and ductility, but only moderate corrosion resistance. Very machinable and hardenable by heat treatment.
(400 series) Magnetic with good corrision resistance. Hardened by cold-working (not heat-treatable).
(Precipitation-hardening) Has good corrosion resistance and ductility. Can be precipitation hardened to higher strengths than the martensitic grades.
Has a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite. Have higher resistance to corrision and stress-corrosion cracking than austenitic grades.
A soft material that is very abrasive and difficult to machine.
Virgin plastic with no additives, fillers or reinforcement.
Virgin plastic with lubricating additives or strengthening particle fill.
Virgin plastic with reinforcing strands of fiber laid in either a random or engineered way.
Virgin or filled plastic that is reinforced with a metal matrix typically made of layered aluminum,
titanium, and/or composites.
Easier to machine woods like White Pine, Sugar Pine, Western Red Cedar, Douglas Fir, Redwood.
Harder to machine woods like Red Oak, Maple, Ash, Hickory, Black Walnut, Cherry, Beech.
Considered more abrasive than hardwoods and softwoods because of the adhesive which holds
them together. Some examples of engineered wood are Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF),
Particle Board, Laminated Board.
Typically, materials are categorized into color-coded groups as shown below. These groups are made up of different types of similar materials. Each of these material types typically consist of numerous subgroups (listed below, under each material type):
|MAIN MATERIAL GROUPS||NON-FERROUS METALS||STEEL||STAINLESS STEEL||CAST IRON||EXOTIC METALS|
| Low Carbon Steel|
Medium Carbon Steel
High Carbon Steel
Low Alloy Steel
|Gray Cast Iron|
Malleable Cast Iron
Nodular Cast Iron
| Nickel Alloy|
Follows the part profile after most of the material has been removed during a roughing operation.
The endmill diameter is equivalent to the slot width and the path follows the centerline of the slot.
The endmill diameter is less than the slot width so it can follow a series of arcs. **
** These tool paths utilize a higher ADOC than the others. It is typically safe to use the full endmill LOC.
Rounded offsets with arcs that pick out slots and corners.
Loops expanding outward to part profile with smaller arcs picking out corners.
Equidistant parallel lines that fit with the cut area.*
Equidistant offsets following the shape of the past profile.
* This is the least favorable tool path and it is not recommended. It utilizes both conventional and climb milling.
Shank (spindle taper)
The upper section of the tool holder t hat fits into the machine tool spindle. This is the “male” interface of the “female” spindle.
Common spindles include:
-CV (also known as Caterpillar ”V-Flange,” or CAT)
-BT (a Japanese standard)
-HSK ( an abbreviation for a German phrase that means “hollow-shank taper”)
-NMTB (National Machine Tool Builders Association)
The part of the tool holder that the machine tool changer locks onto when moving the tool holder between the tool changer and spindle. It is also referred to as the V-Flange in holders with CV, BT, and HSK.
This is the section of the tool holder that secures the cutting tool inside the tool holder.
Common holders include:
-Weldon (or endmill adapter)
Distance from the bottom of the machine tool spindle to the bottom of the tool holder (measured when the tool holder is mounted in the machine spindle).
NOTE: It is important to understand that the tool stick out and cutting depths and widths affect tool performance. Consequently, Machining Advisor Pro adjusts speeds and feeds to account for these setup parameters.
The RDOC and TEA have a direct trigonometric relationship to one another.*
-More cutting work per tool rotation, requiring slower surface speed!
-Difficulty with chip evacuation may require lighter ADOC and/or fewer flutes
-Fewer re-positioning moves, resulting in shorter cycle time
-Less cutting work per tool rotation, allowing faster surface speed
-Better chip evacuation, allowing increased ADOC and/or more flutes
-More re-positioning moves, resulting in longer cycle time
*As stated above, there is a direct trigonometric relationship between the radial depth of cut and the tool engagement angle. Also important to understand is how TEA/ROOC affects “chip thinning”.
Also known as Step Over or Cut Width (often expressed as a percentage of RDOC to endmill cutting diameter).
Also known as Step Down or Cut Depth (often expressed as a percentage of ADOC to endmill cutting diameter).
-More tool deflection, requiring lighter chip load
-Difficulty with chip evacuation may require lighter ROOC and/or fewer flutes
-Less tool deflection, allowing heavier chip load
-Better chip evacuation, allowing increased ROOC and/or more flute
The distance from the end of the holder/collet to the end of the tool. The more the tool sticks out, the less rigid the setup. This results in increased deflection (may require lighter chip loads) and decreased natural
The distance The tool should plunge into the part on the first pass.
The distance the tool should plunge into the part after the first pass.
This denotes how many passes should be taken to reach the full form of the tool.
This denotes how the passes should be taken. This is denoted in the following ways,
The passes start small and gradually get larger with each pass.
The passes start large and gradually get smaller with each pass.
Every pass is the same size.