An Introduction to Reamers & CNC Reaming

Most machinists are familiar with CNC drilling, but did you know that the common practice for holemaking is to always use a reamer? When done correctly, reaming can be a fast and highly accurate operation that results in precision holes.

Critical Reamer Geometries

reamers

By examining the above image of a Harvey Tool Miniature Reamer and its critical dimensions, we can better understand the functionality of this useful tool.

D1 is the reamer diameter. This is the diameter of the specific size intended for your hole.

D2 is the shank diameter. These oversized, but common shank sizes help to maintain tool strength, stiffness and accuracy. It is also important to note that these shanks have an h6 tolerance, crucial for high precision tool holders such as heat shrink collets.

L1 is the overall length of the tool. This dimension is important to consider when touching the tool off or estimating its hang out. It’s always best practice to minimize tool hang out as much as possible.

L2 is the margin length of the tool. As defined in the Machinist’s Handbook, the margin is the unrelieved part of the periphery of the land adjacent to the cutting edge.

L3 is the overall reach of the reamer. This lets the machinist know how deep the reamer can get into a hole.

L4 is the chamfer length.The chamfer is the cutting portion of the reamer – the part of the tool that is actually removing material.

The Functions of Miniature Reamers

Reamers Provide Precision – As mentioned earlier, reamers are great for machining precision hole diameters. To use a reamer properly, you must first have a pre-drilled hole that’s between 90% and 94% of the final hole diameter. For example, if you need a finished a hole of .220, your predrilled hole should be somewhere between .1980 and .2068. This allows the tool to take enough material off to leave a great finish, but does not overwork it, potentially causing damage. The tolerance for uncoated reamers is +.0000/-.0002, while the tolerance for AlTiN coating is +.0002 / -.0000. These tolerances provide you the peace of mind of knowing that your hole will meet exact specifications.

Achieve a Quality CNC Finish – When a high surface finish is required of a hole, reamers should always be used to reach the desired tolerance. Both the pre-drilled hole and the tool’s margin help to keep the reamer centered while cutting, leading to a better finish.

Minimize Machining Production Runs – For machine shops, consistency is a priority. This is especially true in production runs. The last thing a machinist wants to see is an oversized hole on a part they have already preformed many operations on. Remember, reamers have the benefit of offering consistent hole size, preventing an out of tolerance finish. These consistent holes lead to valuable time savings and reduced scrap costs.

CNC Machining Exotic Alloys: When machining Inconel, titanium, and other high-cost materials, reaming your hole is important to ensure that the desired finish specification is met. With reamers, a machinists can better predict tool life, leading to a better finished product and less scrap ratios. It is important to note that Harvey Tool reamers are offered AlTiN coated and fully stocked in every .0005” increment from .0080” to .0640”.

When To and Not To Use Drop Hole Allowance

Dovetail Cutters are cutting tools that create a trapezoidal-type shape, or a dovetail groove, in a part. Due to the form of these tools, special considerations need to be made in order to achieve long tool life and superior results. This is particularly true when machining O-ring grooves, as this operation requires the tool to drop into the part to begin cutting. Using an appropriate tool entry method, specifically understanding when drop hole allowance is (and is not) needed, is important to keep common dovetail mishaps from occurring.

What is a Drop-Hole?

When designing parts featuring O-ring grooves, the consideration of drop-hole allowance is a pivotal first step. A drop-hole is an off-center hole milled during the roughing/slotting operation. This feature allows for a significantly larger, more rigid tool to be used. This is because the cutter no longer has to fit into the slot, but into a hole with a diameter larger than its cutter diameter.

drop hole allowance

Why consider adding a Drop-Hole?

When compared to tools without drop-hole allowance, tools with drop-hole allowance have a much larger neck diameter-to-cutter diameter ratio. This makes the drop-hole tools far stronger, permitting the tool to take heavy radial depths of cut and fewer step-overs. Using a drop-hole will allow the use of the stronger tool, which will increase production rate and improve tool life.

Machining Operation with Drop-Hole Allowance

drop hole allowance

A maximum of 4 radial passes per side are needed.

When Not to Drop Hole

Drop-holes are sometimes not permitted in a design due to the added stress concentration point it leaves. Common examples for where a drop-hole would not be allowed include:

  • In high pressure applications
  • In seals requiring a high reliability
  • Where dangerous or hazardous fluids are being used

The issue with drop-hole allowance is that the additional clearance used for tool entry can create a weak spot in the seal, which can then become compromised under certain conditions. Ultimately, drop-hole allowance requires approval from the customer to ensure the application allows for it.

Machining Operation Without Drop-Hole Allowance

drop hole allowance

A maximum of 20 radial passes per side are needed.

Drop-Hole Placement

When adding a drop-hole to your part, it is important to ensure that the feature is placed correctly to maximize seal integrity. Per the below figure, the drop-hole should be placed off center of the groove, ensuring that only one side of the groove is affected.

drop hole allowance

It is also necessary to ensure that drop-hole features are put on the correct side of the groove. Since O-rings are used as a seal between pressures, it is important to have the drop-hole bordering the high pressure zone. As pressure moves from high to low, the O-ring will be forced into the fully supported side, allowing for a proper seal (See image below).

drop hole allowance

What To Know About Helical Solution’s Zplus Coating

Non-ferrous and non-metallic materials are not usually considered difficult to machine, and therefore, machinists often overlook the use of tool coatings. But while these materials may not present the same machining difficulties as hardened steels and other ferrous materials, a coating can still vastly improve performance in non-ferrous applications. For instance, materials such as aluminum and graphite can cause machinists headaches because of the difficulty they often create from abrasion. To alleviate these issues in non-ferrous machining applications, a popular coating choice is Helical Solution’s Zplus coating.

zplus coating

What is Helical Solutions’ Zplus Coating?

Helical’s Zplus is a Zirconium Nitride-based coating, applied by a Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process. This method of coating takes place in a vacuum and forms layers only microns thick onto the properly prepared tool. Zirconium Nitride does not chemically react to a variety of non-ferrous metals, increasing the lubricity of the tool and aiding in chip evacuation.

zplus coating

When Should a Machinist Use Helical Solution’s Zplus?

Working with Abrasive Materials

While Zplus was created initially for working in aluminum, its hardness level and maximum working temperature of 1,110°F enables it to work well in abrasive forms of other non-ferrous materials, as well. This coating decreases the coefficient of friction between the tool and the part, allowing it to move easier through more abrasive materials. This abrasion resistance decreases the rate of tool wear, prolonging tool life.

Concerns with Efficient Chip Evacuation

One of the primary functions of this coating is to increase the smoothness of the flutes of the tool, which allows for more efficient chip removal. By decreasing the amount of friction between the tool and the material, chips will not stick to the tool, helping to prevent chip packing. The increased lubricity and smoothness provided by the coating allows for a higher level of performance from the cutting tool. Zplus is also recommended for use in softer, gummy alloys, as the smooth surface encourages maximum lubricity within the material – this decreases the likelihood of those gummier chips sticking to the tool while machining.

Large Production Runs

Uncoated tools can work well in many forms of non-ferrous applications. However, to get a genuinely cost-effective tool for your job, the proper coating is highly recommended. Large production runs are known for putting a lot of wear and tear on tools due to their increased use, and by utilizing an appropriate coating, there can be a significant improvement in the tools working life.

When is Zplus Coating Not Beneficial to My Application?

Finishing Applications

When your parts finish is vital to its final application, a machinist may want to consider going with an uncoated tool. As with any coating, ZrN will leave a very minor rounded edge on the tip of the cutting edge. The best finish often requires an extremely sharp tool, and an uncoated tool will have a sharper cutting edge than its coated version.

 

What to Know About Harvey Tool’s TiB2 Coating

Aluminum and magnesium alloys are common materials found in machine shops worldwide, and are known as an “easier” material to machine. However, machinists can still experience hiccups while machining this material if they are not prepared with the proper tooling.. When working with aluminum and magnesium alloys, it is important to choose a coating that will work to extend your tool’s life and aid in the removal of chips. A popular choice for this material bucket is Harvey Tool’s TiB2 coating.

What is Harvey Tool’s TiB2 Coating?

Harvey Tool’s TiB2 coating is a Titanium Diboride, ceramic-based coating that provides superb erosion resistance during machining. TiB2 is added to a tool by a method called Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), which is conducted in a vacuum where particles are vaporized and applied onto a surface, forming thin layers of material onto the properly-prepped tool. This method enables the coating to be corrosion and tarnish resistant.

TiB2 Specifications

TiB2 is identified in Harvey Tool’s product catalog with a “-C8” following the sku number. It can be found offered in Harvey Tool’s lines of Variable Helix End Mills for Aluminum Alloys, Double Angle Shank Cutters, and Miniature High Performance Drills for Aluminum Alloys.

When Should a Machinist Use TiB2?

Chip Evacuation Concerns

TiB2 has an extremely low affinity to aluminum, which helps with the chip evacuation process. Simply, chips of a material are able to evacuate through chip valleys easier if they don’t have a high affinity to the coating being used. TiB2 coating does not chemically react with aluminum and magnesium, which allows for smoother chip evacuation, as the chips do not stick to the coating and create issues such as chip packing. This is a common machining mishap that can cause both part and tool damage, quickly derailing a machining operation. By using a coating that increases the lubricity of the tool, chips will not have a surface to stick to and will more smoothly evacuate from the flutes of the tool.

Large Production Runs

While an uncoated tool may work fine in some applications, not all applications can succeed without a tool coating. When working with large production runs where the tools need to hold up through the process of machining large numbers of parts, using a coating is always recommended because they extend the life of your tool.

When is TiB2 Coating Not Beneficial to My Application?

Extremely Abrasive Materials

During the PVD coating process, tools can reach a temperature in excess of 500° F, which can cause the toughness of the carbide to drop slightly. This process does not normally compromise the performance of the tool due to the coating being placed over the carbide. The coating then protects the slightly weakened edge and increases tool performance in recommended materials. Micro-fractures only start appearing when the tool is being run incredibly fast through highly abrasive materials, leading to a decrease in the life of the tool.

Extremely Soft Materials

The coating, while only a few microns thick at most, still provides an ever-so-slight rounded edge to the cutting edge of the tools it is placed on. It is important to take this into consideration, as using the sharpest tools possible when working with materials such as soft plastics is recommended. The sharpest edge possible decreases the likelihood of any “pushing” that might occur on the material and increases the likelihood of proper “shearing” when machining.

When Finish Is Vital

If your part’s finish is imperative to the final product, an uncoated tool may work better for your application. A coating, like stated above, creates a microscopic rounded surface to the cutting edge of the tool. When running tools at finishing speeds and feeds in materials like aluminum, a sharp edge can create the difference between a finished part that does – or does not – pass final inspection.

Chipbreakers vs. Knuckle Rougher End Mills

Knuckle Roughers and Chipbreakers are common profiles found on roughing end mills that, while fairly similar in appearance, actually serve different functions. Chipbreakers refer to the notches along the cutting edge of a tool that work to break up chips to prevent common evacuation mishaps. Knuckle Roughers refer to the serrated cutting edge of a tool, which works to enhance cutting action for an overall smoother operation.

Determining the appropriate style of tool is a very important first step to a successful roughing application.

Understanding the Two Styles

Chipbreaker End Mills

To aid chip evacuation, Chipbreaker End Mills feature a notched profile along the cutting edge that break down long chips into smaller, more manageable pieces. These tools are often utilized in aluminum jobs, as long, stringy chips are common with that material.

Each notch is offset flute-to-flute to enhance the surface finish on the part. This works by ensuring that as each flute rotates and impacts a part, following flutes work to clean up any marks or extra material that was left behind by the first pass. This leaves a semi-finished surface on your part.

In addition to improving chip control and reducing cutting resistance, these tools also help in decreasing heat load within the chips. This delays tool wear along the cutting edge and improves cutting performance. Not only are these tools great for hogging out a great deal of material, but they can be utilized in a wide array of jobs – from aluminum to steels. Further, a machinist can take full advantage of the unique benefits this tool possesses by utilizing High Efficiency Milling toolpaths, meant to promote efficiency and boost tool life.

Knuckle Roughers

Knuckle Rougher End Mills have a serrated cutting edge that generates significantly smaller chips than a standard end mill cutting edge. This allows for smoother machining and a more efficient metal removal process, similar to Chipbreaker End Mills. However, the serrations chop the chips down to much finer sizes, which allows more chips into the flutes during the evacuation process without any packing occurring.

Designed for steels, Knuckle Rougher End Mills are built to withstand harder materials and feature a large core. Because of this, these tools are great for roughing out a lot of material. However, due to the profile on the cutting edge, tracks along the wall can sometimes be left on a part. If finish is a concern, be sure to come in with a finishing tool after the roughing operation. Knuckle Roughers have proven the ability to run at higher chip loads, compared to similar end mills, which makes this a highly desired style for roughing. Further, this style of rougher causes a lot of heat and friction within the chips, so it’s important to run flood coolant when running this tool.

Key Differences Between Knuckle Roughers & Chipbreakers

While the two geometries offer similar benefits, it’s important to understand the distinct differences between them. Chipbreakers feature offset notches, which help to leave an acceptable finish on the walls of a part. Simply, the material left on an initial flute pass is removed by subsequent passes. A Knuckle Rougher does not feature this offset geometry, which can leave track marks on your part. Where part finish is of upmost importance, utilize a Knuckle Rougher to first hog out a great deal of steel, and work a final pass with a Finishing End Mill.

A unique benefit of Knuckle Roughers is the grind they possess – a cylindrical grind, compared to a relieved grind of a Chipbreaker End Mill. Because of this, Knuckle Roughers are easier to resharpen. Therefore, instead of buying a new tool, resharpening this profile is often a cheaper alternative.

How Material Specific Tooling Pays Off

A machinist is faced with many questions while selecting the proper tool for their job. One key decision that must be made is whether a material specific tool is appropriate and necessary for the application that’s going to be performed – whether the benefits of using this type of tool outweigh the higher price tag than that of a tool designed for use in a variety of materials. There are four main categories to consider when deciding whether a material specific tool is your best bet: internal tool geometry, coatings, material removal rates (MRR), and cost.

When to Utilize Material Specific Tooling

Are you a machinist in a shop that deals primarily with one type of material? Or, do you generally change materials frequently throughout the day? Further, how many parts do you make at a time? These are questions you must ask yourself prior to making a tooling decision.

Material Specific Tooling is best utilized where several parts are being machined of the same material. For instance, if your shop is machining 1,000 plastic parts, it would be in your best interest to opt for a tool designed for this material as your tooling would not only last longer but perform better. If machining flexibility is paramount for your shop, if you’re only machining a few parts, or if part finish is not of high importance, a regular end mill may suffice.

Pros and Cons of Material Specific Tooling

There are pros and cons to purchasing a Material Specific Tool.

Pros:

  • Tool geometry designed for the material you’re working in to achieve the best results.
  • Coating optimized for the material you’re cutting.
  • More aggressive speeds and feeds, and boosted MRR as a result.
  • Increased tool life.

Cons:

  • Higher upfront cost, though long term savings are possible if used in proper situations.
  • Less opportunity for flexibility. While most end mills may be suitable for use in many jobs and many machines, Material Specific End Mills are engineered for use in specific materials

Special Benefits of Material Specific Tooling

A Unique Internal Tool Geometry

Many manufacturers supply tooling designed for use in specific material buckets. For instance, Harvey Tool has distinct catalog sections for material specific tooling for Hardened Steels, Exotic Alloys, Medium Alloy Steels, Free Machining Steels, Aluminum Alloys, Plastics, Diamond Tooling for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Composites. The special geometry of tools found in these sections is optimized to allow the tool to perform optimally in its select material group.

For instance, a machinist may be faced with a dilemma while preparing to machine a plastic part. While an end mill found in Harvey Tool’s Miniature End Mill section could certainly machine this material, Harvey Tool’s end mill offering designed to machine plastics feature a high rake, high relief design. This is ideal for plastics because you want to effectively cut and form chips while the strength of the tool is less of a concern. The high rake and high relief creates a sharp cutting edge that would quickly break down in metals. However, in plastics, this effectively shears the material and transfers the heat into the chip to produce a great finish in your part.

material specific tooling

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Specific Coatings & Substrates for Optimal Performance

One key benefit of opting for a material specific tool is the ability to utilize the best coating option available for that material. Tool coatings serve many functions, including improved lubricity, increased tool life, and a higher-quality part finish. In addition, coated tools can typically be run around 10% faster than uncoated tools.

While many manufacturers will specially coat a standard end mill at your request, this takes added time and cost. In its Material Specific catalog sections, Harvey Tool offers coated tools stocked and ready to ship. For instance, their Hardened Steels and Exotic Alloys categories utilize AlTiN Nano coating. This is a unique nanocomposite coating that has a max working temperature of 2,100° F and shows improved performance in materials such as Hardened Steels, Titantium Alloys, and Inconel, among others.

Increased Material Removal Rates

Because Material Specific Tooling features optimal tool geometry for a job, running parameters are generally able to be more aggressive. Any machinist knows that Material Removal Rates (MRR), is the metric that’s most closely related to shop efficiency, as the more material removed from a part in a given period of time, the faster parts are made and the higher the shop output.

The following example compares running parameters of end mills from Harvey Tool’s Miniature End Mill and Material Specific End Mill Sections. You can notice that while key geometries between the two tools are identical, and are in use in the same material with the same operation, the chip load (+25%), linear feed rate (+33%), and depth of cut (+43%) are boosted. This allows for more material to be removed in a shorter period of time.

Miniature End Mill

Part Number: 836408

Description: 3 Flute 1/8 inch diameter 3x LOC Square Stub & Standard

Material: 6061 Aluminum

Application: Slotting

Speed: 10,000 RPM

Chip Load: .00124 IPT

Linear Feed: 37.2 IPM

DOC: .04375

material specific tooling

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

 

Material Specific End Mill

Part Number: 942308

Description: 3 Flute 1/8 inch diameter 3x LOC Square Variable Helix for Aluminum Alloys

Material: 6061 Aluminum

Application: Slotting

Speed: 10,000 RPM

Chip Load: .00165 IPT

Linear Feed: 49.5 IPM

DOC: .0625

material specific tooling

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Extensive Cost Savings

The following chart displays a cost analysis breakdown between a tool found in the Miniature End Mill section, item 993893-C3; and a tool found in the Material Specific End Mill section, item 933293-C6. When compared for the machining of 1,000 parts, the overall savings is nearly $2,500.

material specific tooling

Material Specific Tooling Summarized

In conclusion, Material Specific End Mills have many benefits, but are best utilized in certain situations. While the initial cost of these tools are higher, they can work to save your shop time and money in the long run by lasting longer and producing more parts over a given period of time.

Confidently Select Your Next Thread Mill

Do you know the key differences between a Single Form Thread Mill and a Multi-Form Thread Mill? Do you know which tooling option is best for your job? This blog post examines how several factors, including the tool’s form and max depth of thread, are important to ultimately making the appropriate Harvey Tool thread mill decision.

Thread Mill Product Offering

Single Form Thread Mill

The single form thread mill is the most versatile threading solution Harvey Tool offers. These tools are ground to a sharp point and are capable of milling 60° thread styles, such as UN, metric, and NPT threads. With over 14 UN and 10 Metric sized tools, Harvey Tool’s single form selections allow machinists the opportunity to machine many different types of threads.

Thread Mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Single Form Thread Mills for Hardened Steels

Similar to the standard single form thread mills, Harvey Tool’s thread mills for hardened steels offer machinists a quality option when dealing with hardened steels from 46-68 Rc. The following unique geometries helps this tool machine tough alloys:

  1. Ground Flat – Instead of a sharp point these tools have a ground flat to help ensure long tool life.
  2. Eccentric Relief – Gives the cutting edges extra strength for the high feeds at relatively low RPMs required for harder materials.
  3. AlTiN Nano Coating – Allows for superior heat resistance.
thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

A key difference between the standard Single Form Thread Mill and the Single Form Thread Mills for Hardened Steels is that the thread mills for hardened steels are actually only capable of milling 83% of the actual thread depth. At first, this may seem detrimental to your operation. However, according to the Machinery’s Handbook 29th Edition, “Tests have shown that any increase in the percentage of full thread over 60% does not significantly increase the strength of the thread. Often, a 55% to 60% thread is satisfactory, although 75% threads are commonly used to provide an extra margin of safety.” With the ability to preserve tool life and effectively perform thread components, Harvey Tool’s single form thread mills for hardened steels are a natural choice when tackling a hardened material.

Tri-Form Thread Mills

Tri-Form thread mills are designed for difficult-to-machine materials. The tri-form design reduces tool pressure and deflection, which results in more accurate threading. Its left-hand cut, left-hand spiral design allows it to climb mill from the top of the thread to the bottom.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Multi-Form Thread Mills

Our multi-form thread mills are offered in styles such as UN, NPT, and Metric. Multi-Form Thread Mills are optimized to produce a full thread in single helical interpolation. Additionally, they allow a machinist to quickly turn around production-style jobs.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Coolant-Through Multi Form Thread Mills

Coolant-Through Multi Form Thread Mills are the perfect tool for when a job calls for thread milling in a blind hole. The coolant through ability of the tool produces superior chip evacuation. These tools also improve coolant flow to the workpiece – delivering it directly from the tip of the tool – for decreased friction and high cutting speeds.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

Long Flute Thread Mills

These tools are great when a job calls for a deep thread, due to their long flute. Long Flute Thread Mills also have a large cutter diameter and core, which provides the tool with improved tool strength and stability.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

N.P.T. Multi-Form Thread Mills

While it may seem obvious, N.P.T. Multi-Form Thread Mills are perfect for milling NPT threads. NPT threads are great for when a part requires a full seal, different from traditional threads that hold pieces together without the water-tight seal.

thread mill

Harvey Performance Company, LLC.

How to Extend the Life of Your End Mill

Breaking and damaging an end mill is oftentimes an avoidable mistake that can be extremely costly for a machine shop. To save time, money, and your end mill it is important to learn some simple tips and tricks to extend your tool’s life.

Properly Prepare Before the Tool Selection Process

The first step of any machining job is selecting the correct end mill for your material and application. However, this doesn’t mean that there should not be an adequate amount of legwork done beforehand to ensure the right decision on a tool is being made. Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions have thousands of different tools for different operations – a vast selection which, if unprepared – can easily result in selecting a tool that’s not the best for your job. To start your preparation, answer the 5 Questions to Ask Before Selecting an End Mill to help you quickly narrow down your selection and better understand the perfect tool you require.

Understand Your Tooling Requirements

It’s important to understand not only what your tool needs, but also general best practices to avoid common machining mishaps. For instance, it is important to use a tool with a length of cut only as long as needed, as the longer a tools length of cut is, the greater the chance of deflection or tool bending, which can decrease its effective life.

tool life

Another factor to consider is the coating composition on a tool. Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions offer many varieties of coatings for different materials. Some coatings increase lubricity, slowing tool wear, while others increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the tool. Not all coatings increase your tool’s life in every material, however. Be wary of coatings that don’t perform well in your part’s material – such as the use of AlTiN coating in Aluminum (Both coating and material are aluminum-based and have a high affinity for each other, which can cause built-up edge and result in chip evacuation problems).

Consider Variable Helix & Pitch Geometry

A feature on many of our high performance end mills is variable helix or variable pitch geometry, which have differently-spaced flutes. As the tool cuts, there are different time intervals between the cutting edges contacting the workpiece, rather than simultaneously on each rotation. The varying time intervals minimizes chatter by reducing harmonics, increasing tool life and producing better results.

Ensure an Effective Tool Holding Strategy

Another factor in prolonging tool life is proper tool holding. A poor tool holding strategy can cause runout, pullout, and scrapped parts. Generally, the most secure connection has more points of contact between the tool holder and tool shank. Hydraulic and Shrink Fit Tool Holders provide increased performance over other tightening methods.

tool life

Helical also offers shank modifications to all stocked standards and special quotes, such as the ToughGRIP Shank, which provides added friction between the holder and the shank of the tool for a more secure grip; and the Haimer Safe-Lock™, which has grooves on the shank of the tool to help lock it into place in a tool holder.

tool life

Trust Your Running Parameters, and their Source

After selecting the correct end mill for your job, the next step is to run the tool at the proper speeds and feeds.

Run at the Correct Speed

Understanding the ideal speed to run your machine is key to prolonging tool life. If you run your tool too fast, it can cause suboptimal chip size, ineffective chip evacuation, or even total tool failure. Adversely, running your tool too slowly can result in deflection, bad finish, or decreased metal removal rates.

Push at the Best Feed Rate

Another critical parameter of speeds and feeds is finding the best possible feed rate for your job, for sake of both tool life and achieving maximum shop efficiency. Pushing your tool too aggressively can result in breakage, but being too conservative can lead to recutting chips and excess heat generation, accelerating tool wear.

Use Parameters from Your Tooling Manufacturer

A manufacturer’s speeds and feeds calculations take into account every tool dimension, even those not called out in a catalog and readily available to machinists. Because of this, it’s best to rely on running parameters from tooling manufacturers. Harvey Tool offers speeds and feeds charts for every one of its more than 21,000 tools featured in its catalog, helping machinists to confidently run their tool the first time.

Harvey Performance Company offers the Machining Advisor Pro application, a free, cutting-edge resource that generates custom running parameters for optimized machining with all of Helical’s products.

tool life

Opt for the Right Milling Strategy: Climb vs Conventional

There are two ways to cut material when milling: Climb Milling and Conventional Milling. In conventional milling, the cutter rotates against the feed. In this method, chips will start at theoretical zero and increase in size. Conventional milling is usually recommended for tools with higher toughness, or for breaking through case hardened materials.

In Climb Milling, the cutter rotates with the feed. Here, the chips start at maximum width and decrease, causing the heat generated to transfer into the chip instead of being left in the tool or work piece. Climb milling also produces a cleaner shear plane, causing less rubbing, decreasing heat, and improving tool life. When climb milling, chips will be removed behind the cutter, reducing your chances of recutting.

Utilize High Efficiency Milling

High Efficiency Milling (HEM), is a roughing technique that uses the theory of chip thinning by applying a smaller radial depth of cut (RDOC) and a larger axial depth of cut (ADOC). The parameters for HEM are similar to that of finishing, but with increased speeds and feeds, allowing for higher material removal rates (MRR). HEM utilizes the full length of cut instead of just a portion of the cutter, allowing heat to be distributed across the cutting edge, maximizing tool life and productivity. This reduces the possibility of accelerated tool wear and breakage.

Decide On Coolant Usage & Delivery

Coolant can be an extremely effective way to protect your tool from premature wear and possible tool breakage. There are many different types of coolant and methods of delivery to your tool. Coolant can come in the form of compressed air, water-based, straight oil-based, soluble oil-based, synthetic or semi-synthetic. It can be delivered as mist, flood, high pressure or minimum quantity lubricant.

Appropriate coolant type and delivery vary depending on your application and tool. For example, using a high pressure coolant with miniature tooling can lead to tool breakage due to the fragile nature of extremely small tools. In applications of materials that are soft and gummy, flood coolant washes away the long stringy chips to help avoid recutting and built-up edge, preventing extra tool wear.

Extend Your Tool’s Life

The ability to maximize tool life saves you time, money and headaches. To get the best possible outcome from your tool, you first need to be sure you’re using the best tool for your job. Once you find your tool, ensure that your speeds and feeds are accurate and are from your tooling manufacturer. Nobody knows the tools better than they do. Finally, think about how to run your tool: the rotation of your cutter, whether utilizing an HEM approach is best, and how to introduce coolant to your job.

 

Using Tool Libraries in Autodesk HSM & Fusion 360

The days of modeling your tools in CAM are coming to an end. Harvey Performance Company has partnered with Autodesk to provide comprehensive Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions tool libraries to Fusion 360 and Autodesk HSM users. Now, users can access 3D models of Harvey and Helical tools with a quick download and a few simple clicks. Keep reading to learn how to download these libraries, find the tool you are looking for, how to think about speeds and feeds for these libraries, and more.

Downloading Tool Libraries

To download one of our tool libraries, head to https://cam.autodesk.com/hsmtools. There you will find Harvey Tool and Helical Solutions tool libraries. You will be able to sort by vendor or use the search bar to filter results. There will be a download option for both Fusion and HSM.

From there, you will need to import the tool libraries from your Downloads folder into Fusion 360 or HSM. These tool libraries can be imported into your “Local” or “Cloud” libraries in Fusion 360, depending on where you would like them to appear. For HSM, simply import the HSMLIB file you have downloaded as you would any other tool library.

Curt Chan, Autodesk MFG Marketing Manager, takes a deeper dive into the process behind downloading, importing, and using CAM tool libraries to Fusion in the instructional video below.

For HSM users, jump to the 2:45 mark in this video from Autodesk’s Lars Christensen, who explains how to download and import these libraries into Autodesk HSM.


Selecting a Tool

Once you have downloaded and imported your tool libraries, selecting a specific tool or group of tools can be done in several ways.

Searching by Tool Number

To search by tool number, simply enter the tool number into the search bar at the top of your tool library window. For example, if you are looking for Helical Tool EDP 00015, enter “00015” into the search bar and the results will narrow to show only that tool.

Fusion 360 Tool Libraries

In the default display settings for Fusion 360, the tool number is not displayed in the table of results, where you will find the tool name, flute count, cutter diameter, and other important information. If you would like to add the tool number to this list of available data, you can right click on the top menu bar where it says “Name” and select “Product ID” from the drop down menu. This will add the tool number (ex. 00015) to the list of information readily available to you in the table.

Harvey Tool Tool Libraries

Searching by Keyword

To search by a keyword, simply input the keyword into the search bar at the top of the tool library window. For example, if you are looking for metric tooling, you can search “metric” to filter by tools matching that keyword. This is helpful when searching for Specialty Profile tools which are not supported by the current profile filters, like the Harvey Tool Double Angle Shank Cutters seen in the example below.

Fusion 360 Tool Libraries

Searching by Tool Type

To search by tool type, click the “Type” button in the top menu of your tool library window. From there, you will be able to segment the tools by their profile. For example, if you only wanted to see Harvey Tool ball nose end mills, choose “Ball” and your tool results will filter accordingly.

Tool Libraries

As more specialty profiles are added, these filters will allow you to filter by profiles such as chamfer, dovetail, drill, threadmill, and more. However, some specialty profile tools do not currently have a supported tool type. These tools show as “form tools” and are easier to find by searching by tool number or name. For example, there is not currently a profile filter for “Double Angle Shank Cutters” so you will not be able to sort by that profile. Instead, type “Double Angle Shank Cutter” into the search bar (see “Searching by Keyword”) to filter by that tool type.

Searching by Tool Dimensions

To search by tool dimensions, click the “Dimensions” button in the top menu of your tool library window. From there, you will be able to filter tools by your desired dimensions, including cutter diameter, flute count, overall length, radius, and flute length (also known as length of cut). For example, if you wanted to see Helical 3 flute end mills in a 0.5 inch diameter, you would check off the boxes next to “Diameter” and “Flute Count” and enter the values you are looking for. From there, the tool results will filter based on the selections you have made.

Tool Libraries

Using Specialty Profile Tools

Due to the differences in naming conventions between manufacturers, some Harvey Tool/Helical specialty profile tools will not appear exactly as you think in Fusion 360/HSM. However, each tool does contain a description with the exact name of the tool. For example, Harvey Tool Drill/End Mills display in Fusion 360 as Spot Drills, but the description field will call them out as Drill/End Mill tools, as you can see below.

Below is a chart that will help you match up Harvey Tool/Helical tool names with the current Fusion 360 tool names.

Tool Name Fusion 360 Name
Back Chamfer Cutter Dovetail Mill
Chamfer Cutters Chamfer Mill
Corner Rounding End Mill – Unflared Radius Mill
Dovetail Cutter Dovetail Mill
Drill/End Mill Spot Drill
Engraving Cutter/Marking Cutter – Tip Radius Tapered Mill
Engraving Cutter – Tipped Off & Pointed Chamfer Mill
Keyseat Cutter Slot Mill
Runner Cutter Tapered Mill
Undercutting End Mill Lollipop Mill
All Other Specialty Profiles Form Mill

Speeds and Feeds

To ensure the best possible machining results, we have decided not to pre-populate speeds and feeds information into our tool libraries. Instead, we encourage machinists to access the speeds and feeds resources that we offer to dial accurate running parameters based on their material, application, and machine capabilities.

Harvey Tool Speeds & Feeds

To access speeds and feeds information for your Harvey Tool product, head to http://www.harveytool.com/cms/SpeedsFeeds_228.aspx to find speeds and feeds libraries for every tool.

If you are looking for tool specific speeds and feeds information, you will need to access the tool’s “Tech Info” page. You can reach these pages by clicking any of the hyperlinked tool numbers across all of our product tables. From there, simply click “Speeds & Feeds” to access the speeds and feeds PDF for that specific tool.

If you have further questions about speeds and feeds, please reach out to our Technical Support team. They can be reached Monday-Friday from 8 AM to 7 PM EST at 800-645-5609, or by email at harveytech@harveyperformance.com.

Helical Solutions Speeds & Feeds

To access speeds and feeds information for your Helical Solutions end mills, we recommend using our Machining Advisor Pro application. Machining Advisor Pro (MAP) generates specialized machining parameters by pairing the unique geometries of your Helical Solutions end mill with your exact tool path, material, and machine setup. MAP is available free of charge as a web-based desktop app, or as a downloadable application on the App Store for iOS and Google Play.

machining advisor pro

To learn more about Machining Advisor Pro and get started today, visit www.machiningadvisorpro.com. If you have any questions about MAP, please reach out to us at webapps@harveyperformance.com.

If you have further questions about speeds and feeds, please reach out to our Technical Support team. They can be reached Monday-Friday from 8 AM to 7 PM EST at 866-543-5422, or by email at helicaltech@harveyperformance.com.


For additional questions or help using tool libraries, please send an email to webapps@harveyperformance.com. If you would like to request a Harvey Performance Company tool library be added to your CAM package, please fill out the form here and let us know! We will be sure to notify you when your CAM package has available tool libraries.

Main Differences Between Engravers & Marking Cutters

While similar on the surface, Half-round Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters are actually very different. Both tools are unique in the geometries they possess, the benefits they offer, and the specific purposes they’re used for. Below are the key differences between Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters that all machinists must know, as the engraving on a part is often a critical step in the machining process.

Engravers & Marking Cutters Serve Different Purposes

All Marking Cutters are Engraving Cutters, but not all Engraving Cutters are Marking Cutters. This is because Marking Cutters are a “type” of engraving tool. By virtue of their sturdier geometry, Marking Cutters are suited for applications requiring repetition such as the engraving of serial numbers onto parts. Harvey Tool has been able to customize specific tool geometries for ferrous and non-ferrous applications, offering Marking Cutters for material specific purposes.

engraver

Engraving Cutters, on the other hand, are meant for finer detailed applications that require intricate designs such as engraving a wedding band or a complex brand design.

engraver

These Tools Have Unique Geometry Features

Historically, Engraving Cutters have been made as a half round style tool. This tool allows for a true point, which is better for fine detail, but can easily break if not run correctly. Because of this, Engraving Cutters have performed well in softer materials such as aluminum and wood, especially for jobs that require an artistic engraving with fine detail.

Marking cutters are not as widely seen throughout the industry, however. These tools hold up in harder-to-machine materials exceedingly well. Marking Cutters are a form of Engraving Cutter that contain 2 flutes and a web at the tip, meaning that the tool has a stronger tip and is less susceptible to breakage.

engraver

While these tools do not contain a true point (due to their web), they do feature shear flutes for better cutting action and the ability to evacuate chips easier when compared to a half-round engraver.

Harvey Tool Product Offering

Harvey Tool offers a wide variety of both Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters. Choose from a selection of pointed, double-ended, tip radius, and tipped-off Engraving Cutter styles in 15 included angles ranging from 10° to 120°.

engraver

Marking Cutters are fully stocked in tip radius or tipped-off options, and are designed specifically for either ferrous or non-ferrous materials. Marking Cutters are offered in included angles from 20° to 120°.

While Engraving Cutters are offered uncoated or in AlTiN, AlTiN Nano, or Amorphous Diamond coatings, Marking Cutters are fully stocked in uncoated, AlTiN, or TiB2 coated styles.

Marking Cutters & Engravers Summarized

While both Engraving Cutters and Marking Cutters can accomplish similar tasks, each tool has its own advantages and purpose. Selecting the correct tool is based largely on preference and applicability to the job at hand. Factors that could impact your selection would be final Depth of Cut, Width of Cut, the angle needing to be achieved, and the desired detail of the engraving.